Economic Modelling of Female Participation in a Mixed Health Care System of Developing Economies

  • School: Nottingham Business School
  • Starting: 2019
  • Funding: UK student / EU student (non-UK) / International student (non-EU) / Self-funded


Physician dual practice has long been documented in the Health Economics literature as a prevalent feature in the national health system of developing countries. For example, Gruen et al. (2002) documented that more than 80 percent of the government physicians in Bangladesh engage in private practice, while Russo et al. (2013) show that 55 percent of physicians surveyed in three African cities engaged in dual practice. Even though thorough reviews of the existing literature of physician dual practice have been conducted by various studies, such as, non-exhaustively, Eggleston and Bir (2006) and Socha and Bech (2011), studies that explore female participation in dual practice and its growth and welfare implications in a developing economy with mixed health care system, remains very limited. Agénor and Canuto (2015) and Agénor et al. (2014) develop growth models to examine the impact of gender equality (within a collective family decision-making and time-allocation context) on children’s health and consequently, growth. While these studies show that the lack of gender equality in a developing country can cause lack of attention paid to child-rearing, and consequently adversely affecting the health status and productivity of an adult (due to health persistence as a children grows to become an adult), it pays no attention to the intricacy of a mixed health care system. As such, these studies do not bring any insight into female decision’s to become a physician, and related issues.

The research would likely involve both theoretical and empirical components. The candidate would develop a macroeconomic model with gender and physician markets. Based on this model, primary data collection or survey similar to Russo et al. (2013) or the various waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey [see, for instance, Strauss et al. (2016)] is conducted in a relevant developing country, which is then used to implement econometric estimation/testing of the theoretical propositions developed.
This study therefore involves the candidate having to develop skills in survey design and the development of questionnaires or structured interviews. The learning outcome will be threefold as (i) the candidate will benefit from the training of writing a theoretical model, (ii) the candidate will develop expertise throughout the preparation process of Page 8 of 8 implementing a primary surveys; (iii) the candidate will then learn to analyse the data collected using applied econometric techniques implementing a primary surveys; (iii) the candidate will then learn to analyse the data collected using applied econometric techniques.


Agénor, P, Canuto, O., 2015. Gender equality and economic growth in Brazil: A long-run analysis. Journal of Macroeconomics 43 (3), 155.172.

Agénor, P, Canuto, O., Pereira da Silva, L., 2014. On gender and growth: The role of intergenerational health externalities and women's occupational constraints. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 30 (C), 132-147.

Eggleston, Karen, Bir, Anupa, 2006. Physician dual practice. Health Policy 78, 157-166.

Gruen, Reinhold, Anwar, Raqibul, Begum, Tahmina, Killingsworth, James, Normand, Charles, 2002. Dual job holding practitioners in Bangladesh: an exploration. Social Science & Medicine 54 (2), 267-279.

Russo, Giuliano, McPake, Barbara, Fronteira, Inês, Ferrinho, Paulo, 2013. Negotiating markets for health: an exploration of physicians' engagement in dual practice in three African capital cities. Health Policy and Planning 29, 774-783.

Socha, Karolina, Bech, Mickael, 2011. Physician dual practice: A review of literature. Health Policy 102 (1), 1-7.

Strauss, John, Witoelar, Firman, Sikoki, Bondan, 2016. The Fifth Wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS5): Overview and Field Report. March. WR-1143/1-NIA/NICHD.


King Yoong Lim

Entry qualifications

An applicant for admission to read for a PhD should normally hold a first or upper second class honours degree of a UK university or an equivalent qualification, or a lower second class honours degree with a Master's degree at Merit level of a UK university or an equivalent qualification.

International students will also need to meet the English language requirements - IELTS 6.5 (with minimum sub-scores of 6.0). Applicants who have taken a higher degree at a UK university are normally exempt from the English language requirements. A research proposal (between 1,000 and a maximum of 2,000 words) must be submitted as part of the application.

For more information please visit the NTU Doctoral School – Research Degrees webpages.

How to apply

Applications are accepted all year round.

Download an application form here.
Please make sure you take a look at our application guidance notes before making your application.

Further information on how to apply can be found on this page.

Fees and funding

This is a self-funded PhD opportunity.

Guidance and support

Further information on guidance and support can be found on this page.

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King Yoong Lim