Social Value Orientation

  • School: Nottingham Business School
  • Starting: 2019
  • Funding: UK student / EU student (non-UK) / International student (non-EU) / Self-funded


Social value orientation is a construct rooted in social psychology that tells us how much weight a person attaches to the welfare and needs of others in relation to their own. Research shows that social value orientation is predictive of important behavioural characteristics such as cooperative behaviour in social dilemmas, helping behaviour, donation behaviour, pro-environmental behaviour, and negotiation behaviour. It follows that cooperative social value orientation may also be predictive of interest in and commitment to creating social value, and thereafter the success of organisational initiatives.

Determining the social value categories (i.e. cooperative/prosocial, individualistic, or competitive social value orientation) and social value orientation angle (within a social value orientation slider scale) of two groups of respondents vis-à vis their contributions to social value and social impact is one of the objectives of this research project. We will compare and contrast the responses from active practitioners in this area (i.e. those engaged with social value) and people yet to be convinced of the project.


Dees, J.G. (2001) The Meaning of Social Entrepreneurship. Durham, NC: Duke University, Fuqua School of Business, Center for the Advancement of Social Entrepreneurship.

Griesinger, D.W. and Livingston,  J.W.  (1973) Toward a model of interpersonal motivation in experimental games. Behavioral Science, 18 (3), 173– 188.  

Kelley, H.H. and Stahelski, A.J. (1970) Social interaction basis of cooperators’ and competitors’ beliefs about others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16, 66 –   91.

Kelley, H.H. and Thibault, J.W. (1978) Interpersonal Relations: A Theory of Interdependence.    New York: Wiley.    
Messick, D.M. and McClintock, C.G.  (1968) Motivational bases of choice in experimental games.  Journal of Experimental Psychology,  4: 1 – 25.  

Raiden, A.B., Loosemore, M., King, A. and Gorse, C. (2019) Social Value in Construction, Abingdon: Taylor and Francis.
Social Enterprise UK (2017) The Future of Business – State of Social Enterprise Survey 2017.  London: Social Enterprise UK.

Yujuico, E. (2008) Connecting the dots in social entrepreneurship through the capabilities approach. Socio-Economic Review, 6(3), 493–513.


Dr Ani Raiden

Entry qualifications

An applicant for admission to read for a PhD should normally hold a first or upper second class honours degree of a UK university or an equivalent qualification, or a lower second class honours degree with a Master's degree at Merit level of a UK university or an equivalent qualification.

International students will also need to meet the English language requirements - IELTS 6.5 (with minimum sub-scores of 6.0). Applicants who have taken a higher degree at a UK university are normally exempt from the English language requirements. A research proposal (between 1,000 and a maximum of 2,000 words) must be submitted as part of the application.

For more information please visit the NTU Doctoral School – Research Degrees webpages.

How to apply

Applications are accepted all year round.

Download an application form here.
Please make sure you take a look at our application guidance notes before making your application.

Further information on how to apply can be found on this page.

Fees and funding

This is a self-funded PhD opportunity.

Guidance and support

Further information on guidance and support can be found on this page.

Still need help?

Ani Raiden