Users as Change Agents: User Driven Business Model Innovation For Positive Energy Districts

  • School: Nottingham Business School
  • Starting: 2019
  • Funding: UK student / EU student (non-UK) / International student (non-EU) / Self-funded



Identify exploitation opportunities comparing new venture propositions between people living and working in Positive Energy Districts (PEDs) and those that do not, by considering differences in energy consumption, its antecedent decision-making factors and behaviour change over time.

Expected Results

Trigger change in PED citizens and user energy consumption behaviours through technology (e.g., via habit changes through the opening of “windows of change”), the spread of shared economy, and/or social influences (e.g., normative group influences) in the PED environment. Explore opportunities for energy providers to tap into new expectations and behaviours differentiating their business models designing.


Verplanken, B. and Wood, W. (2006). Interventions to break and create consumer habits. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 25(1), 90-103.

Schultz, P. W., Nolan, J. M., Cialdini, R. B., Goldstein, N. J., & Griskevicius, V. (2007). The constructive, destructive, and reconstructive power of social norms. Psychological science, 18(5), 429-434.


Dr Kostas Galanakis

Entry qualifications

An applicant for admission to read for a PhD should normally hold a first or upper second class honours degree of a UK university or an equivalent qualification, or a lower second class honours degree with a Master's degree at Merit level of a UK university or an equivalent qualification.

International students will also need to meet the English language requirements - IELTS 6.5 (with minimum sub-scores of 6.0). Applicants who have taken a higher degree at a UK university are normally exempt from the English language requirements. A research proposal (between 1,000 and a maximum of 2,000 words) must be submitted as part of the application.

For more information please visit the NTU Doctoral School – Research Degrees webpages.

How to apply

Applications are accepted all year round.

Download an application form here.
Please make sure you take a look at our application guidance notes before making your application.

Further information on how to apply can be found on this page.

Fees and funding

This is a self-funded PhD opportunity.

Guidance and support

Find out about guidance and support for PhD students.

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Kostas Galanakis