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Frank Worcester

Frank Worcester

Research Fellow

School of Science & Technology


Frank Worcester is a Research Fellow at Nottingham Trent University (NTU) and member of Medical Engineering Design Research Group (MEDRG). Frank’s current role is on the Innovation for Invention project (II-LA-0716-20002) developing human-computer interfaces (HCI) for both patients and medical practitioners in order to improve the sedation process for local anaesthetic, in-theatre operations. This includes working with partners from Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, University of Nottingham, B.Braun Medical Devices Ltd. and the University of Lincoln.

Frank supports the MEDRG additionally through the use of SolidWorks and supporting undergraduate and masters students.

Career overview

Frank has attained a Distinction for a Master’s Degree in Smart Design, as well as a First Class BSc (Hons) Product Design undergraduate degree at Nottingham Trent University.  The former enabled Frank to be sponsored by PepsiCo Europe to create a low cost embedded machine vision system for high speed manufacture, reducing costs by 99.33% with a 88% higher success rate compared to their established suppliers. The former final year project was a Semi-autonomous Oyster Mushroom Growing device which questioned the sustainability of current protein agricultural farming production methods.

After completing the Masters, Frank attained the job above as the Research Assistant in Hardware Interface Device Design & Development and now as a Research Fellow in Medical Engineering Design Research.

Research areas

Frank is currently on a NIHR funded Innovation for Invention project (II-LA-0716-20002 - Development of a patient-maintained sedation device to allow patients to safely control their own sedation levels during surgical and medical procedures). This involves:

  • Understanding the medical product design development process.
  • Completing a MHRA Technical File to applicable British Standards for MHRA approval. This includes software design to BS EN 62304:2006+A1:2015, risk management to BS EN ISO 13485:2016, PEMS validation to BS EN 60601-1:2006+A12:2014, quality management to BS EN ISO 14971:2012 and usability engineering to BS EN 62366-1:2015.
  • Designing and developing a medical hardware HCI product to be used as part of the research project.
  • Writing research journal publications and attending conferences to present findings in public.

External activity


  • 2016 - Product Displays Joint Winners, PepsiCo Europe
  • 2016 - Sustainability in Practice Certificate
  • 2015 – Cradle to Cradle Certified Products for the Circular Economy
  • 2014 - Best Cost Effective Award, Tongji University
  • 2014 - Overall Winner, Engineers Without Borders


  • 2014 - Upcycle Master (Group), Tongji University and Other Chinese Universities, China.

Sponsors and collaborators

  • National Health Service (NHS)
  • National Institute for Health research, Invention for Innovation programme
  • Nottingham University Hospital Trust
  • University of Nottingham
  • PepsiCo Europe
  • B.Braun Medical Ltd.
  • Engineers Without Borders (EWB)


Journal Articles:

HEWSON DW, WORCESTER F, SPRINKS J, SMITH MD, BUCHANAN H, BREEDON P, HARDMAN JG, BEDFORTH NM., 2019. Anaesthetist-controlled versus patient-maintained effect-site targeted propofol sedation during elective primary lower-limb arthroplasty performed under spinal anaesthesia (ACCEPTS): study protocol for a parallel-group randomised comparison trial. Trials. 20: 129.

JINDAL, P., WORCESTER, F., GUPTA, A. and BREEDON, P., 2019. Efficiency of nanoparticle reinforcement using finite element analysis of titanium alloy mandible plate. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine. ISSN 0954-4119

JINDAL, P., WORCESTER, F., WALIA, K., GUPTA, A. and BREEDON, P., 2019. Finite element analysis of titanium alloy-graphene based mandible plate. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. ISSN 1025-5842

WORCESTER, F.R., 2014. Briefing: Infusing culture into a playground to aid engineering design. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Municipal Engineer, 167(4), pp.171–174.

Conference Contributions:
SPRINKS, J., WORCESTER, F., BREEDON, P., HEWSON, D. and BEDWORTH, N., 2018. Patient-maintained propofol sedation: the anaesthetists' point of view. In: IADIS International Conference Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction 2018, Madrid, Spain, July 2018.

HEWSON, D., BEDWORTH, N., SPRINKS, J., BREEDON, P. and WORCESTER, F., 2018. Patient-maintained propofol sedation for orthopaedic surgery: patient variability in system use. In: International Conference on Ergonomics & Human Factors (CIEHF), Birmingham, 23-25 April 2018.

See all of Frank Worcester's publications...

Press expertise

  • Medical product design within a regulatory framework
  • Industrial product design
  • Sustainable engineering design