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Irene Zempi

Senior Lecturer

School of Social Sciences

Staff Group(s)


Dr Irene Zempi is a Senior Lecturer in Criminology at Nottingham Trent University. Irene is the module leader for the following modules:

  • Diversity of Crimes and Prejudice (Core module, Year 2, BA Criminology)
  • Work-based Research Project (Core module, MA Criminology)

Career overview

Irene joined Nottingham Trent University as a Lecturer in Criminology in September 2015. Prior to this position, Irene worked as a Teaching Fellow in the Department of Criminology, University of Leicester for five years. She has a Postgraduate Certificate in Academic Practice (Nottingham Trent University), PhD in Criminology (University of Leicester), MSc in Criminology (University of Leicester) and BSc in Sociology (Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences).

Irene is a member of the editorial board of the journal Sociological Research Online, a member of the steering committee of the British Society of Criminology (BSC) Hate Crime Network and a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy. She is an external examiner for the BA Criminology and Sociology Course at the University of Bedfordshire.

Irene has published widely on issues of hate crime and researcher positionality. She has provided written and oral evidence to parliamentary committees, and has been invited by the Law Commission to provide advice for the review of Hate Crime Legislation in England and Wales.

Irene is the Principal Investigator for the evaluation of Citizens at the Heart: A Citizen Centred Approach to Tackling Hate Crime, which is a two year pilot project funded by the European Union’s Rights, Equality and Citizenship Programme to tackle prejudice and respond to hate crime.

Research areas

  • Hate crime
  • Intersectionality
  • Victimisation
  • Policing
  • Ethnography

External activity

  • Member of British Society of Criminology
  • Member of British Sociological Association
  • Member of British Society of Criminology Hate Crime Network (Steering Committee)
  • Member of Editorial Board, Sociological Research Online
  • Member of Sociology Consultative Forum OCR (Oxford, Cambridge and RSA)


Knight, V. and Zempi, I. (2020) Embracing the emotional turn: Responding to researcher emotion in qualitative research Emotions & Society DOI:

Zempi, I. (2019) Veiled Muslim women’s responses to experiences of gendered Islamophobia in the UK International Review of Victimology 26 (1): 96–111

Zempi, I. (2019) Veiled Muslim women's views on law banning the wearing of the niqab (face veil) in public Ethnic and Racial Studies 42 (15): 2585-2602

Awan, I. and Zempi, I. (2018) ‘YOU ALL LOOK THE SAME’: Non-Muslim Men who Suffer Islamophobic Hate Crime in the post-Brexit era European Journal of Criminology 1–18 DOI: 10.1177/1477370818812735

Zempi, I. (2018) “Looking back, I wouldn't join up again”: The Lived Experiences of Police Officers as Victims of Bias and Prejudice Perpetrated by Fellow Staff within an English Police Force Police Practice and Research: An International Journal DOI: 10.1080/15614263.2018.1525381

Mason-Bish, H. and Zempi, I. (2018) Misogyny, Racism and Islamophobia: Street Harassment at the Intersections Feminist Criminology 1–20 DOI: 10.1177/1557085118772088

Mawby, R. C. and Zempi, I. (2018) ‘Every time it happens, you question continuing as an officer’: The Experiences of Police Officers as Victims of Hate Crime Policing: An International Journal 41 (5) DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2016-0176

Zempi, I. and Awan, I. (2017) Doing ‘Dangerous’ Autoethnography on Islamophobic Victimisation Ethnography 18 (3): 367-386 DOI: 10.1177/1466138117697996

Zempi, I. (2017) Doing autoethnography: Researching victimisation through wearing the Muslim veil in public Methodological Innovations 10 (1): 1-10 DOI: 10.1177/2059799117720617

Zempi, I. (2016) Negotiating constructions of insider and outsider status in research with veiled Muslim women victims of Islamophobic hate crime Sociological Research Online 21 (4): 8 DOI: 10.5153/sro.4080

Zempi, I. (2016) “It's a part of me, I feel naked without it”: choice, agency and identity for Muslim women who wear the niqab Ethnic and Racial Studies 39 (10): 1738-1754

Awan, I. and Zempi, I. (2016) The Affinity between Online and Offline anti-Muslim Hate Crime: Dynamics and Impacts Aggression and Violent Behaviour 27: 1-8

Awan, I. and Zempi, I. (2015) ‘I will Blow your face off: Virtual and Physical World Anti-Muslim Hate Crime British Journal of Criminology DOI: 10.1093/bjc/azv122

Zempi, I. and Chakraborti, N. (2015) “They Make Us Feel Like We’re a Virus”: The Impact of Islamophobic Victimisation upon Veiled Muslim Women International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy 4 (3): 44-56

Chakraborti, N. and Zempi, I. (2013) Criminalising Oppression or Reinforcing Oppression? The Implications of Veil Ban Laws for Muslim Women in the West Northern Ireland Legal Quarterly 64 (1): 63-74

Chakraborti, N. and Zempi, I. (2012) The Veil under Attack: Gendered Dimensions of Islamophobic Victimisation International Review of Victimology 18 (3): 269-284


Garland, J., Zempi, I. and Smith, J. (forthcoming in 2022) The Climate of Intolerance - Understanding the Spectrum of Hate Perpetration, London: Routledge

Zempi, I. and Smith, J. (eds.) (2021) Misogyny as Hate Crime, London: Routledge

Awan, I. and Zempi, I. (2019) Student Textbook of Islamophobia, London: Routledge

Zempi, I. and Awan, I. (eds.) (2019) Routledge International Handbook of Islamophobia, London: Routledge

Zempi, I. and Awan, I. (2016) Islamophobia: Lived Experiences of Online and Offline Victimisation, Bristol: The Policy Press

Zempi, I. and Chakraborti, N. (2014) Islamophobia, Victimisation and the Veil, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Book Chapters

Zempi, I. and Awan, I. (2021) "Autoethnography" in M. Stausberg and S. Engler. (eds) The Routledge Handbook of Research Methods in the Study of Religion, London: Routledge

Zempi, I. (2018) “The lived experiences of veiled Muslim women as ‘undeserving’ victims of Islamophobia” in M. Duggan (ed) Values in Victimology: Revisiting the ‘Ideal Victim’ Thesis, Bristol: Policy Press

Zempi, I. (2016) ‘Exploring the impacts of Islamophobia on veiled women globally’ in J. Schweppe and M. Walters (eds) The Globalisation of Hate: Internationalising hate crime?, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Zempi, I. (2014) ‘Responding to the Needs of Victims of Islamophobia’ in N. Chakraborti and J. Garland (eds) Responding to Hate Crime: The Case for Connecting Policy and Research, Bristol: The Policy Press


Zempi, I., Lewis, B., Din, R. and Foster, C. (2021) Tackling Religion-Based Hate Crime on Campus: Faith Ambassadors Project, Nottingham: Nottingham Trent University

Awan, I. and Zempi, I. (2021) How the ‘Beautiful Game’ turned to hate: Why Islamophobia has creeped into grassroots football, Birmingham: Birmingham City University and Nottingham Trent University.

Zempi, I. (2020) Nottinghamshire Police: Experiences of Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) police officers as victims of hate crimes/incidents (externally) and of bias and prejudice (internally), Nottingham: Nottingham Trent University

Mawby, R. and Zempi, I. (2016) ‘Every time it happens, you question continuing as an officer’: The experiences of police workers as victims of hate crime, Leicester: University of Leicester and Nottingham Trent University

Awan, I. and Zempi, I. (2015) We fear for our lives: online and offline experiences of anti-Muslim hate crime, London: Tell MAMA

See all of Dr Irene Zempi's publications...