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Carl Smith

Professor

School of Animal Rural & Environmental Sciences

Role

Professor of Natural History and PGR tutor for the School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences.

Career overview

Prior to joining NTU, Prof. Smith was Reader in Zoology at the University of St Andrews. He previously held lectureships at the University of Leicester and Queen Mary College of the University of London. Before his first lectureship he held a post-doctoral fellowship at the University of East Anglia, served as a VSO volunteer in Bangladesh and worked for the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. He completed a PhD on fish ecology at the University of Aberystwyth.

Research areas

Prof. Smith’s research addresses the extraordinary diversity of fish mating systems. His goal is to understand how selection structures that diversity, the role that mating systems play in regulating gene flow between populations and species, and the way in which coevolution between species can shape mating system evolution. He has three main areas of research: the relationship between bitterling, fish that lay their eggs in the gills of living freshwater mussels, and their mussel hosts; the selective factors driving the rapid evolutionary radiation of sticklebacks, with a focus on field sites in North Uist which show the greatest global diversity of stickleback morphology (the ‘Scottish Galapagos’); and the remarkable relationship between cichlid fishes in the African Great Lakes and ‘cuckoo’ catfish, which parasitize the parental behaviour of cichlids by placing their eggs under the care of breeding cichlids. He employs a range of techniques in his research, including behavioural observation, population-level analysis, population genetics, parentage analysis, physiology studies, comparative analysis, and a range of cutting-edge statistical approaches.

External activity

Prof. Smith holds a research professorship at the University of Lodz in Poland and is a Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Vertebrate Biology of the Czech Academy of Sciences.

He is Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Vertebrate Biology (formerly Folia Zoologica)

Publications

García, D., Smith, C., Machín, E., Loureiro, M. & Reichard, M. (2019) Changing patterns of growth in a changing planet: how a shift in phenology affects critical life-history traits in annual fishes. Freshwater Biology doi:10.1111/fwb.13376.

Smith, C. & Warren, M. (2019) GLMs in R for Ecology. Amazon Publishing.  

Skúlason, S., Smith, C. et al. (2019) A way forward with eco-evo-devo: an extended theory of resource polymorphism with postglacial fishes as model systems. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society doi: 10.1111/brv.12534.

Pyrzanowski, K., Zięba, G., Dukowska, M., Smith, C. & Przybylski, M. (2019) The role of detritivory as a feeding tactic in a harsh environment–a case study of weatherfish (Misgurnus fossilis). Scientific Reports 9, 8467.

Grabowska, J., Zięba, G., Przybylski, M. & Smith, C.(2019) The role of intraspecific competition in the dispersal of an invasive fish. Freshwater Biology 64, 933-941.

Bartáková, V., Bryja, J., Šanda, R., Bektas, Y., Stefanov, T., Choleva, L., Smith, C. & Reichard, M. (2019) High cryptic diversity of bitterling fish in the southern West Palearctic. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 133, 1-11.

Polačik, M., Reichard, M., Smith, C. & Blažek, R. (2019) Parasitic cuckoo catfish exploit parental responses to stray offspring. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 374, 20180412.

Methling, C., Douda, K., Liu, H., Rouchet, R., Bartáková, V., Yu, D., Smith, C. & Reichard, M. (2018) Energetic costs in the relationship between bitterling and mussels in East Asia. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125, 750-759.

Smith, C., Spence, R. & Reichard, M. (2018) Sperm is a sexual ornament in rose bitterling. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 31, 1610-1622.

Smith, C. (2018) North Uist - the ‘Scottish Galápagos’: a hotspot of stickleback biodiversity. Hebridean Naturalist 18, 30-35.

Konečný, A., Popa, O., Bartáková, V., Douda, K., Bryja, J., Smith, C., Popa, L.O. & Reichard, M. (2018) Modelling the invasion history of Sinanodonta woodianain Europe: tracking the routes of a sedentary aquatic invader with mobile parasitic larvae. Evolutionary Applications 11, 1975-1989.

Blažek, R., Polačik, M., Smith, C., Honza, M., Meyer, A. & Reichard, M. (2018) Success of cuckoo catfish brood parasitism reflects coevolutionary history and individual experience of their cichlid hosts. Science Advances 4, eaar4380.

Zięba, G., Dukowska, M., Przybylski, M., Fox, M.G. & Smith, C.(2018) Parental care compromises feeding in the pumpkinseed fish (Lepomis gibbosus). The Science of Nature 105, 26.

Zięba, G., Smith, C., Fox, M.G., Yavno, S., Záhorská, E., Przybylski, M., Masson, G., Cucherousset, J., Verreycken, H., van Kleef, H. & Copp, G.H. (2018) Red operculum spots, body size, maturation and evidence for a satellite male phenotype in non-native European populations of pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosusEcology of Freshwater Fish 27, 874-883.

Douda, K., Liu, H., Yu, D., Rouchet, R., Liu, F., Tang, Q.-Y., Methling, C., Smith, C.& Reichard, M. (2017) The role of local adaptation in shaping fish-mussel coevolution. Freshwater Biology 62, 1858-1868.

Rouchet, R., Smith, C., Liu, H., Methling, C., Douda, K., Yu, D., Tang, Q. & Reichard, M. (2017) Avoidance of host resistance in the oviposition-site preferences of rose bitterling. Evolutionary Ecology 31, 769-783.

Phillips, A, Reichard, M & Smith, C(2017) Sex differences in the responses to oviposition site cues by a fish revealed by tests with an artificial host. Animal Behaviour 126, 187-194.

Smith C.(2017) Bayesian inference supports the host selection hypothesis in explaining adaptive host specificity by European bitterling. Oecologia 183, 379-389.

Polačik, M., Smith, C. & Reichard, M. (2017) Maternal effects modulate adaptive bet-hedging of embryo development in an annual killifish. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 30, 738-749.

Smith C.& Wootton, R.J. (2016) The remarkable reproductive diversity of teleost fishes. Fish & Fisheries 17, 1208-1215.

Klepaker, T., Østbye, K., Spence, R., Warren, M., Przybylski, M. & Smith C.(2016) Selective agents in the adaptive radiation of Hebridean sticklebacks. Evolutionary Ecology Research 17, 243-262.

Wootton, R.J. & Smith, C. (2015) Reproductive Biology of Teleost Fishes. Blackwell-Wiley, Oxford.

Reichard, M., Douda, K., Przybyłski, M., Popa, O.P, Karbanová, E., Matasová, K., Rylková, K., Polačik, M., Blažek, R. & Smith, C. (2015) Population-specific responses to an invasive species. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 282, 20151063.

Smith, C., Phillips, A. & Reichard, M. (2015) Cognitive ability is heritable and predicts the success of an alternative mating tactic. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 282, 20151046.

Smith, G., Smith, C., Kenny, J.G., Chaudhuri, R.R. & Ritchie, M.G. (2015) Genome-wide differential methylation between marine and freshwater ecotypes of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Molecular Biology & Evolution 32, 888-895.

Warren, M., Dunbar, M. & Smith, C.(2015) River flow as a determinant of salmonid abundance and distribution: implications for river restoration and management. Environmental Biology of Fishes 98, 1695-1717.

Chang, C.-H., Li, F., Shao, K.-T., Lin, Y.-S., Morosawa, T., Kim, S., Koo, H., Kim, W., Lee, J.-S., He, S., Smith, C., Reichard, M., Miya, M., Chen, W.-J., Mayden, R.L. (2014) Phylogenetic relationships of Acheilognathidae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinoidea) as revealed from evidence of both nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequence variation: Evidence for necessary taxonomic revision in the family and the identification of cryptic species. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 81, 182-194.

Smith, C., Spence, R., Barber, I., Przybylski, M. & Wootton, R.J. (2014) The role of calcium and predation on plate morph evolution in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Ecology & Evolution 18, 3550-3554.

Smith, C., Warren, M., Rouchet, R. & Reichard, M. (2014) The function of multiple ejaculations in bitterling. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 27,1819-1829.

Kawamura, K., Ueda, T., Arai, R. & Smith, C.(2014) Phylogenetic relationships of bitterling fishes (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Acheilognathinae), inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. Zoological Science 31, 321-341.

Smith, C., Phillips, A., Polačik, M. & Reichard, M. (2014) Male coloration signals direct benefits in the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus). Environmental Biology of Fishes 97, 335-341.

Smith, C. & Reichard, M. (2013) A sperm competition model for the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus). Behaviour 150, 1709-1730.

Ercan, E., Gaygusuz, Ö., Tarkan, A.S., Reichard, M. & Smith, C(2013) The ecology of freshwater bivalves from Lake Sapanca Basin, Turkey. TurkishJournal of Zoology 37, 730-738.

Spence, R., Wootton, R.J., Barber, I., Przybylski, M. & Smith, C.(2013) Ecological causes of morphological evolution in the three-spined stickleback. Ecology & Evolution 3, 1717-1726.

Casalini, M., Reichard, M., Phillips, A. & Smith, C.(2013) Male choice of mates and mating resources in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatusBehavioral Ecology 24, 1199-1204.

Smith, C.& Spence, R. (2013) The potential direct and indirect benefits of mate choice in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Evolutionary Ecology Research 15, 331-341.

Spence, R., Reichard, M.  & Smith, C.(2013) Strategic sperm allocation and a Coolidge effect in an externally fertilizing species. Behavioral Ecology 24, 82-88.

Spence, R. & Smith, C.(2013) Rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus) embryos parasitise freshwater mussels by competing for nutrients and oxygen. Acta Zoologica 94, 113-118.

Reichard, M., Spence, R., Bryjova, A., Bryja, J. & Smith, C.(2012) Female rose bitterling prefer MHC-dissimilar males: experimental evidence. PLoS One 7, e40780.

Spence, R., Wootton, R.J., Przybylski, M., Macdonald, K. & Smith, C.(2012) Calcium and salinity as selective factors in plate morph evolution of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25, 1965-1974.

Reichard, M., Vrtílek, M., Douda, K. &Smith, C.(2012) An invasive species causes role reversal in a host-parasite relationship. Biology Letters 8, 601-604.

Agbali, M., Spence, R., Reichard, M. & Smith, C.(2012) Direct fitness benefits are preferred when the strength of direct and indirect sexual selection are equivalent. Israel Journal of Ecology & Evolution 58, 279-288.

Řežucha, M., Smith, C.& Reichard, M. (2012) Personality traits, reproductive behaviour and alternative mating tactics in male European bitterling, Rhodeus amarusBehaviour 149, 531-553.

Agbali, M. & Smith, C.(2012) Long-term fitness consequences for offspring of female oviposition decisions in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus).Acta Zoologica 93, 367-372.

Smith, C., Ondračková, M., Spence, R., Adams, S., Betts, D.S. & Mallon, E. (2011) Pathogen-mediated selection for MHC variability in wild zebrafish. Evolutionary Ecology Research 13, 589-605.

Reichard, M., Bryja, J., Polačik, M. & Smith, C.(2011) No evidence for host specialization or host-race formation in the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus), a fish that parasitizes freshwater mussels. Molecular Ecology 20, 3631-3643.

Pateman-Jones, C., Rasotto, M.B., Reichard, M., Liao, C., Liu, H., Zięba, G. & Smith, C.(2011) Variation in male reproductive traits among three bitterling fishes (Acheilognathinae: Cyprinidae) in relation to mating system. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 103, 622-632.

Spence, R., Magurran, A.E. & Smith, C.(2011) Spatial cognition in zebrafish: the role of strain and rearing environment. Animal Cognition 14, 607-612.

Smith, C.(2011) Good fences make good neighbours: the role of landmarks in territory partitioning in the rose bitterling. Behaviour 148, 233-246.

Bryja, J., Smith, C.& Reichard, M. (2010) Range-wide population genetic structure of the European bitterling based on microsatellites and mtDNA. Molecular Ecology 19, 4708–4722.

Reichard, M. Polačik, M., Tarkan, A.S., Spence, R., Gaygusuz, Ö., Ercan, E., Ondračková, M. & Smith, C.(2010) The bitterling–mussel coevolutionary relationship in areas of recent and ancient sympatry. Evolution 64, 3047-3056.

Konečná, M., Smith, C.& Reichard, M. (2010) Population and individual consequences of breeding resource availability in the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus). Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 64, 1069-1079.

Agbali, M., Reichard, M., Bryjova, A., Bryja, J. & Smith, C.(2010) Mate choice for non-additive genetic benefits correlate with MHC dissimilarity in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus). Evolution 64, 1683-1696.

Casalini, M., Reichard & Smith, C.(2010) The effect of crowding and density on male mating tactics in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus). Behaviour 147, 1035-1050.

Casalini, M., Agbali, M., Reichard, M., Konečná, M., Bryjova, A. & Smith, C.(2009) Male dominance, female mate choice and intersexual conflict in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus). Evolution 63, 366-376.

Smith C., Pateman-Jones, C., Zięba, G., Przybylski, M. & Reichard, M. (2009) Sperm depletion as a consequence of increased sperm competition risk in the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus). Animal Behaviour 77, 1227-1233.

Reichard, M., Ondračová, M., Bryjova, A., Smith, C.& Bryja, J. (2009) Breeding resource distribution affects selection gradients on male phenotypic traits: experimental study on lifetime reproductive success in the bitterling fish (Rhodeus amarus). Evolution 63, 377-390.

Smith, C.(2009) Biology of the three-spined stickleback. Fish & Fisheries 10, 354-355.

Zaki, S.A.H., Jordan, W.C., Reichard, M., Przybylski, M., & Smith, C.(2008) A morphological and genetic analysis of the European bitterling species complex. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 95, 337-347.

Spence, R. & Smith, C.(2008) Innate and learned colour preference in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Ethology 114, 582-588.

Reichard, M., Smith, C.& Bryja, P. (2008) Seasonal change in the opportunity for sexual selection. Molecular Ecology 17, 642-651.

Spence, R., Gerlach, G., Lawrence, C.  & Smith, C.(2008) The behaviour and ecology of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Biological Reviews 18, 13-34.

Smith, C.(2008) Sensuous seas. Fish & Fisheries 9, 217-218.

Smith, C.(2007) Subterranean fishes of the world. Journal of Fish Biology 71, 310-313.

Reichard, M., Le Comber, S.  & Smith, C.(2007) Sneaking from a female perspective. Animal Behaviour 74, 679-688.

Przybylski, M., Reichard, M., Spence, R. & Smith, C.(2007) Evidence that the spatial distribution of fertilizations determines variance in male reproductive success in the European bitterling, Rhodeus amarus. Behaviour 144, 1403-1417.

Smith, C., Yurong, Z., Liu, H. & Reichard, M. (2007) Deceptive female oviposition behaviour elicits male ejaculation in the European bitterling. Journal of Fish Biology 71, 1841-1846.

Spence, R., Ashton, R. & Smith, C.(2007) Adaptive oviposition choice in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Behaviour 144, 953-966.

Van Damme, D., Bogutskaya, N., Hoffmann, R.C. & Smith, C.(2007) The introduction of the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus) to West and Central Europe. Fish & Fisheries 8, 79–106.

Spence, R., Fatema, K.F., Ellis, S., Ahmed, Z.F. & Smith, C.(2007) The diet, growth and recruitment of wild zebrafish (Danio rerio) in Bangladesh. Journal of Fish Biology 71, 304-309.

Ahmed, Z.F., Smith, C., Ahamed, F. & Hossain, M.Y. (2007) Growth and reproduction of the Indian river shad, Gudusia chapra(Clupeidae). Folia Zoologica 56, 1-12.

Reichard, M., Przybylski, M., Kaniewska, P., Liu, H. & Smith, C.(2007) A possible evolutionary lag in the relationship between freshwater mussels and European bitterling. Journal of Fish Biology 70, 709-725.

Reichard, M., Liu, H. & Smith, C.(2007) The co-evolutionary relationship between bitterling fishes and freshwater mussels: insights from interspecific comparisons. Evolutionary Ecology Research 9, 1-21.

Spence, R. & Smith, C.(2007) Zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a model for understanding the behavioural basis of imprinting. Ethology 113, 62-67.

Spence, R. & Smith, C.(2006) Female mate preferences in the zebrafish (Danio rerio).Behavioral Ecology 17, 779-783.

Spence, R., Runa, K.F., Reichard, M., Huq, K.A., Wahab, M.A., Ahmed, Z.F. & Smith, C.(2006) The distribution and habitat preferences of the zebrafish in Bangladesh. Journal of Fish Biology 69, 1435-1448.

Liu, H., Yurong, Z., Reichard, M. & Smith, C.(2006) Evidence of host specificity and congruence between phylogenies of bitterlings and freshwater mussels. Zoological Studies 45, 428-434.

Spence, R. & Smith, C.(2006) Genetic analysis of male reproductive success in relation to density and sex ratio in the zebrafish, Danio rerioBMC Frontiers in Zoology 3, 5.

Jurajda, P., Reichard, M.Smith, C.(2006) Immediate impact of an extensive summer flood on the adult fish assemblage of a channelized lowland river. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 21, 493-501.

Smith, C., Reichard, M., Douglas, A. & Jurajda, P. (2006) Population consequences of behaviour in the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeusCyprinidae). Ecology of Freshwater Fishes 15, 139-145.

Reichard, M., Ondračková, M., Przybylski, M., Liu, H. & Smith, C.(2006) The costs and benefits in an unusual symbiosis: experimental evidence that bitterling fish (Rhodeus sericeus) are parasites of unionid mussels in Europe. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19, 788-796.

Smith, C.(2006) Guide to the inland fishes of Taiwan. Journal of Fish Biology 69, 1261-1264.

Smith, C.& Reichard, M.(2005) Females solicit sneakers to improve fertilisation success in the bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus). Proceedings of the Royal Society, London. B 272, 1683-88.

Spence, R. & Smith, C.(2005) Male territoriality mediates density and sex ratio effects on oviposition in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Animal Behaviour 69, 1317-1323.

Reichard, M., Bryja, J., Ondračková, M., Dávidová, M., Kaniewska, P. & Smith, C.(2005) Sexual selection for male dominance reduces opportunities for female choice in the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus). Molecular Ecology 14,1533-1542.

Smith, C., Barber, I., Wootton, R.J. & Chittka, L. (2004) A receiver bias in the origin of threespine stickleback mate choice. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London. B 271, 949-955.

Smith, C., Reichard, M., Jurajda, P. & Przybylski, M. (2004) The reproductive ecology of the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus). Journal of Zoology 262, 107-124.

Reichard, M., Smith, C.& Jordan, W.C. (2004) Genetic evidence reveals density-dependent mediated success of alternative mating tactics in the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus)Molecular Ecology 13, 1569-78.

Reichard, M., Jurajda, P. & Smith, C.(2004) Male-male interference competition decreases spawning rate in the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus).Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 56, 34-41.

Reichard, M., Jurajda, P. & Smith, C.(2004) Spatial distribution of drifting cyprinid fishes in a shallow lowland river. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 159, 395-407.

Payne, A.G., Smith, C.& Campbell, A.C. (2004) A model of oxygen mediated cannibalism in fishes. Ecological Modelling 174, 253-266.

Le Comber, S. & Smith, C.(2004) Polyploidy in fishes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 82, 25-33.

Le Comber, S., Faulkes, C.G., Van Look, K.J.W., Holt, W.V. & Smith, C.(2004) Recovery of sperm activity after osmotic shock in the three-spined stickleback: implications for pre-oviposition behaviour. Behaviour 141, 1555-1570.

Harrison, S.S.C., Pretty, J.L., Shepherd, D.J., Hildrew, A.G., Smith, C.& Hey, R.D. (2004) Rehabilitation of lowland rivers: the effects of instream structures on invertebrates. Journal of Applied Ecology 41, 1140—54.

Smith, C., Reichard, M. & Jurajda, P. (2003) Assessment of sperm competition by bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus). Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 53, 206-213.

Payne, A.G., Smith, C.& Campbell, A.C. (2003) Interactions between ophiuroids and beaugregory damselfish. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 83, 625-632.

Payne, A.G., Smith, C.& Campbell, A.C. (2003) Whole clutch cannibalism in the beaugregory damselfish. Journal of Fish Biology 62, 982-993.

Pretty, J.L., Harrison, S.S.C., Shepherd, D.J., Smith, C., Hildrew, A.G. & Hey, R.D. (2003) River rehabilitation and fish populations: assessing the benefit of instream structures. Journal of Applied Ecology 40, 233-242.

Le Comber, C., Faulkes, C.G. & Formosinho, J., Smith, C.(2003) Response of territorial males to the threat of sneaking in the three-spined stickleback: a field study. Journal of Zoology 261, 15-20.

Payne, A.G., Smith, C.& Campbell, A.C. (2002) Filial cannibalism improves survival and development of beaugregory damselfish embryos. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London. B. 269, 2095-2102.

Smith, C., Douglas, A. & Jurajda, P. (2002) Sexual conflict, sexual selection, and sperm competition in the spawning decisions of bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus). Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 51, 433-439.

Smith, C., Rippon, K., Douglas, A. & Jurajda, P. (2001) A proximate cue for oviposition site choice in the bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus). Freshwater Biology 46, 903-911.

Smith, C., Douglas, A. & Jurajda, P. (2001) Oviposition site selection and embryo mortality in the perch. Journal of Fish Biology 58, 880-882.

Langler, G.J. & Smith, C.(2001) Effects of habitat enhancement on a juvenile fish assemblage. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management 17, 677-686.

Halliday, N.C., Coombs, S.H. & Smith, C.(2001) A comparison of LHPR and OPC data from vertical distribution sampling of zooplankton in a Norwegian fjord. Sarsia 86, 87-99.

Smith, C., Reynolds, J.D., Sutherland, W.J. & Jurajda, P. (2000) The population consequences of reproductive decisions. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London. B. 267, 1327-1334.

Smith, C., Reynolds, J.D., & Sutherland, W.J. (2000) Adaptive host choice and avoidance of superparasitism in the spawning decisions of bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus).Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 48, 29-35.

Wootton, R.J. & Smith, C.(2000) Long-term study of a short-lived fish: the demography of Gasterosteus aculeatusBehaviour 137, 981-997.

Smith, C.& Wootton, R.J. (1999) Parental energy expenditure of the male three-spined stickleback. Journal of Fish Biology 54, 1132-1136.

Smith, C.& Wootton, R.J. (1998) Cannibalism and the operational sex ratio - a response to Kvarnemo. Reviews in Fish Biology & Fisheries 8, 99-100.

Conway, D.V.P., Coombs, S.H. & Smith, C.(1998) Feeding success of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) larvae in the north-western Adriatic Sea in response to changing hydrobiological conditions. Marine Ecology ProgressSeries 175, 35-49.

Conway, D.V.P., Coombs, S.H. & Smith, C.(1997) Vertical distribution of fish eggs and larvae in the Irish Sea and southern North Sea. Journal of Marine Science 54, 136-147.

Smith, C.(1997) Naturalized fishes of the World. Journal of Fish Biology 50, 1360-1362.

Wootton, R.J., Fletcher, D.A., Smith, C.& Whoriskey, F.G. (1995) A review of reproductive rates in relation to parental expenditure and operational sex ratios. Behaviour 132, 915-932.

Smith, C.& Wootton, R.J. (1995) The effect of brood cannibalism on the operational sex ratio in parental teleost fishes. Reviews in Fish Biology & Fisheries 5, 372-376.

Smith, C.& Wootton, R.J. (1995) Experimental analysis of some factors affecting parental expenditure in Gasterosteus aculeatus(Gasterosteidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 43, 63-76.

Smith, C.& Wootton, R.J. (1995) Experimental analysis of some factors affecting parental expenditure in Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum (Cichlidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 42, 289-302.

Smith, C.& Wootton, R.J. (1995) The costs of parental care in teleost fishes. Reviews in Fish Biology & Fisheries 5, 7-22.

Smith, C.& Wootton, R.J. (1994) The costs of parental care in Haplochromis“argens” (Cichlidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 40, 99-104.

Smith, C.(1993) Cannibalism: ecology and evolution among diverse taxa. Reviews in Fish Biology & Fisheries 3, 86-187.

Smith, C.(1992) Filial cannibalism as a reproductive strategy in care-giving teleosts? Netherlands Journal of Zoology 42, 607-613.

Smith, C.(1991) Rockfishes of the genus Sebastes: their reproduction and early life history. Journal of Fish Biology 39, 455-458.

Smith, C.& Reay, P.J. (1991) Cannibalism in teleost fish. Reviews in Fish Biology & Fisheries 1, 41-64.