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Rupert Soar

Rupert Soar

Associate Professor

School of Architecture Design and the Built Environment

Staff Group(s)


Associate Professor in Sustainable Technologies

Career overview

Director of Freeform Construction Ltd & the Termes Trust (Namibia)

  • 2008-2010 University of Greenwich (School of architecture and construction) – Lecturer (part time)
  • 2001- 2008 Loughborough University (Wolfson School of Mech and Man Eng and adjunct role to Civil and Building Engineering) – Senior Lecturer, The Rapid Manufacturing Consortium, The Freeform Construction Group
  • 1999-2001 De Montfort University - Lecturer, course leader Rapid Product Development, member of the Rapid Manufacturing Consortium
  • 1998-1999 De Montfort University - Completion of PhD lecturer in Mech and Man Eng
  • 1995-1998 University of Nottingham - Commencement of PhD in Additive Manufacturing
  • 1994-1995 University of Nottingham - MSc in Manufacturing Systems. Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Operations Management
  • 1990-1993 University of Nottingham - BSc Hons. in Production and Operations Management including the 1993 PERA Award for research excellence
  • 1987-1989 Basford Hall College - BTech in Construction Department of Construction and Surveying, Basford Hall College Nottingham.

Research areas

Current research:

From Swarm Intelligence to Living Buildings: Novel Concepts of Managing Internal Climates - collaboration between NTU, Harvard, Wyss Institute, Nat Centre for Biological Sciences
HFSP Program Grant $1.5m

Previous research:

1) Freeform Construction:

Mega-Scale rapid Manufacturing for Construction

Funding - IMRC £1,250,000

Journal publications and outcomes:

I3Con: Integrated Utility Nodes via Rapid Manufacturing

Funding - EU FP6 £453,664

Journal publications and outcomes:

  • Complete information can be found at i3con.
  • Construction Processes for the Digital Trinity - ISBN 978-1-897911-32-7

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Architecture and Construction [archiFORM]

Funding - IMCRC £156,301

Journal publications and outcomes:

  • Towards Breaking the Mould, WIC Conf- Digital Architecture and Computing - South Korea, Sept 2006.
  • Architectural Freeform Construction: Does the future start here? Procs. CIB W55/65
  • Visualisation and RM: A survey of architecture practise in the UK - Procs. at CIB W096 Adaptables Conf, 2 - 5 July 2006.
  • Architectural Freeform Construction: Potential Use in Repair for Re-use, Maintenance and Manufacture of Building Components - COBRA 2006 CONF of RICS, ISBN: 978-1-84219-307-4

Bulk Aggregation and Rheopeptic Deposition FC Process [BAiRD]

Funding - IMCRC £95,000

Journal publications and outcomes:

Integrating Design and Process Control for Freeform Construction [CoDesIgn]

Funding -

Journal publications and outcomes:

Application Research for Freeform Construction Processes [PrefCon]

Funding - IMCRC £53,000

Journal publications and outcomes:

  • The Potential of Freeform Construction - Proc 16th International Symposium on Freeform Fabrication . Austin, Texas, US, 2005
  • The Potential for Applying Freeform Processes To Construction - Proc. AEC2005, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 2005

Ngim, D.B. (2009) (PhD)

Journal publications and outcomes:

Godbold, O. (2008) (PhD)

Journal publications and outcomes:

  • Implications of Solid Freeform Fabrication on Acoustic Absorbers - Rapid Prototyping Journal
  • Fabrication of Acoustic Absorbing Topologies Using Rapid Prototyping - Canadian Acoustics Assoc, Conf 2008
  • Investigation of Passive Acoustic Attenuation geometries within Freeform Constructed Structures - Doctoral Thesis at Loughborough University

Modeen, T. (2008) (PhD)

Journal publications and outcomes:

2) Biomimetics

3D-Mapping of Macrotermes michaelseni Mounds: Lessons for Human Construction?

Funding - EPSRC £421,000

Journal publications and outcomes:

  • Complete information can be found at J Scott Turner’s webpage.
  • Understanding Large-scale Passive Ventilation and Mound Regulation in Macrotermes michaelseni Mounds as a Template for Sustainable Construction Methods - ICE2008, Durban, South Africa, July 2008
  • Beyond Biomimicry: What Termites Can Tell Us about Realizing the Living Building - I3Con, pp219- 237, ISBN 978-1-897911-32-7

Cognitive Trap Threshold in Macrotermes michaelseni Termites

Funding - ARO Neuro Program £50,000

Journal Publications and Outcomes:

  • Bio-inspired Emergent Construction - proc 2005 IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium (SIS 2005)

3) Rapid Prototyping, Rapid Tooling and Rapid Manufacturing

Design Limits for Laminate Tooling for High Pressure Die Casting

Funding - EPSRC

Journal publications and outcomes:

  • Design Limits of Un-bonded Laminate Tooling for Pressure Die-Casting - Proc Inst Mech Eng, Part B.
  • Finishing Laminate Tooling with Stereolithography E.D.M. Electrodes - fifth Eu Conf on RP and Manuf, pp87-106
  • Processing & Application of Rapid Prototyped Laminate Production Tooling - second Nat Conf on Developments in RP & Tooling pp 65-77
  • Design of Laminate Tooling for High Pressure Die-casting - SPIE Rapid Product Development Technologies, pp198-210, ISBN: 0819423122
  • Deflection and the Prevention of Ingress within Laminate Tooling for Pressure Die-Casting - SFF Symp 1997, pp307-317
  • Laminate Tooling for the Production of Prototype Pressure Die-Cast Dies - TCT Conf 1998, pp332-343

Innovative Manuf of Rapid Die-Casting Tooling by Laminating for the Automotive Industry, IMI RADICAL

Funding - EPSRC GR/M75068/01

Journal publications and outcomes:

Norwood, A.J. (2007) (PhD)

Journal publications and outcomes:

  • Surface Temperature of Tools in High Pressure Die-casting of Aluminium - Inst of Mech Eng
  • A New Fatigue Test Procedure for Die Casting tool materials - Inst of Mech Eng, Part B
  • Thermal Fatigue of Rapid Prototype Metallic Materials - Doctoral Thesis at Loughborough University

Enhanced RM: Applied Research and Modelling using 3D Printing

Funding - IMCRC £47,249

4) Smart Metal Structures by Ultrasonic Object Consolidation

A Model for Plastic Flow Phenomenon in Embedded Continuous Reinforced Fibre Composites by DFUOC

Funding - EPSRC/JGS £253,000

Journal publications and outcomes:

Direct Fabrication of Smart Metal Structures by Ultrasonic Object Consolidation (DFUOC)

Funding - EPSRC £60,000

Journal publications and outcomes:

Induced Plastic Deformation of Ultrasonic Consolidated Aluminium Alloy Specimens

Funding - IMCRC £50,000

Journal publications and outcomes:

Plastic Flow in Metal Matrices Around Continuous Reinforced Fibre Composites by DFUOC

Funding - IMCRC £42,905

Journal publications and outcomes:

Kong, C.Y. (2005) (PhD)

Journal publications and outcomes:

  • Investigation of ultrasonic Consolidation for Embedding Active/Passive Fibres in Aluminium Matrices - Doctoral Thesis at Loughborough University

Johnson, K. (2006) (PhD)

Journal publications and outcomes:

  • Adaptive embedded Ti structures by Ultrasonic Consolidation - Doctoral Thesis at Loughborough University

External activity

  • Consultant in Digital Fabrication for Construction
  • Editor Intelligent Building International
  • Freelance Research

Sponsors and collaborators

Current Collaborators:

  • J Scott Turner – State University of New York (USA)
  • EnExG Laing O’Rourke - Construction
  • Exploration Ltd - Architecture
  • Radhika Nagpal - Harvard University (USA)
  • L Mahadavan - The Wyss Institute (USA)
  • Tata National Centre for Biological Sciences (India)
  • The National Museum of Namibia

Past Collaborators:

  • BAE Systems
  • Siemens
  • Kemlows Die Casting
  • Warwick University
  • Sheffield University
  • Salford University
  • Siant Gobain (formerly BPB)
  • Foster and Partners
  • Burro Happold
  • DSTL / Qinetic
  • Army Research Office (USA)
  • Solidica Inc (USA)
  • Weber
  • University of Southern California (USA)
  • Hull University
  • Tekla Systems


Full list of publications can be found by clicking on 'go to publications' link above.

Selected publications:

SOAR, R. and ANDREEN, D., 2012. The role of additive manufacturing and physiomimetic computational design for digital construction, Architectural Design, Vol. 82, Issue 2 (March/April), pp.126-135 (DOIi: 10.1002/ad.1389) ISSN 0003-8504

NGIM, D.B., LIU, J.S. and SOAR, R.C. 2009. Design optimization of consolidated granular-solid polymer prismatic beam using metamorphic development, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 46, pp.726-740 (DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2008.09.031) ISSN 0020-7683

BUSWELL, R.A., THORPE, A., SOAR, R.C. and GIBB, A.G.F. 2008. Design, data and process issues for mega-scale rapid manufacturing machines used for construction, Automation in Construction, Vol. 17, pp.923-929 (DOI:10.1016/j.autcon.2008.03.001) ISSN 0926-5805

MOU, C., SAFFARI, P., LI, D., ZHOU, K., ZHANG, L., SOAR, R. and BENNION, I., 2008. Smart structure sensors based on embedded fibre Bragg grating arrays in aluminium alloy matrix by ultrasonic consolidation, Measurement Science and Technology, Vol.20, 034013 (6pp) (DOI:10.1088/0957-0233/2013/034013) ISSN 1361-6501

See all of Rupert C Soar's publications...

Press expertise

  • Biomimetics
  • Digital Fabrication
  • Additive Manufacturing
  • 3D Printing
  • Construction Technologies
  • Termites and Swarm Agents