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Charlotte Apps

Charlotte Apps

Senior Lecturer

School of Science & Technology

Staff Group(s)


Dr Apps teaches biomechanics modules to Undergraduate and Postgraduate students and is the year tutor to first year Sport and Exercise Science students. Currently, she is module leader of Analysis of Human Movement (SPOR20042) and contributes to the Introduction to Human Movement Science (SPOR10042), Applied Human Movement for Sport (SPOR30042), and Sport Science in Action (SPOR40041) modules. Dr Apps is part of the Sport Performance research group within the Sport, Health and Performance Enhancement (SHAPE) Research Centre.

Career overview

Dr Apps obtained a BSc in Anatomy and Human Biology from the University of Liverpool, and then obtained an MSc from Liverpool John Moores University. Dr Apps completed her Ph.D in biomechanics from Liverpool John Moores University, which was partly studied at Li Ning (China) Sports Goods Co. Ltd. Prior to joining NTU Dr Apps was a teaching assistant and research officer at Liverpool John Moores University.

Research areas

Dr Apps’s research has focused on understanding adaptations to functional footwear that can either enhance training intensity, improve performance or comfort and reduce injury risk. Specific past and present projects include:

  • The biomechanical and neuromuscular adaptations to shoe-surface instability
  • The role of in-shoe friction in reducing foot movement inside the shoe during dynamic cutting manoeuvres
  • The influence of insole material properties on plantar pressure and subjective footwear comfort
  • Biomechanical asymmetry in normal and injury prone athletes across different sports

Applications for MRes/ MPhil/ PhD study in the areas identified above are encouraged. Further information may be obtained on the NTU Research Degrees website:

External activity

Dr Apps is a member of Footwear Science, The British Association of Sport and Exercise Science (BASES) and the International Society of Biomechanics.

Dr Apps is on the Editorial Board for the  Sports Biomechanics Journal

Sponsors and collaborators

Past or present research projects have been funded and supported by sporting goods manufacturers and in collaboration with academic institutions:

Li Ning Sports Science Research Center

Xtep (China) Co Ltd

New Balance Athletics, Inc

Liverpool John Moores University


Apps, C., Dawson, L., Shering, B., & Siegkas, P. Grip socks improve slalom course performance and reduce in-shoe foot displacement of the forefoot in male and female sports players. (2022). Journal of Sports Sciences. AHEAD-OF-PRINT, 1-9.

Liu, Y., Lam, W. K., Seglina, I., & Apps, C. (2022). Does the Location of Shoe Upper Support on Basketball Shoes Influence Ground Reaction Force and Ankle Mechanics during Cutting Maneuvers?. Biology11(5), 743.

Parkinson, A. O., Apps, C. L., Morris, J. G., Cleveland, T. B., & Lewis, M. G. (2021). The Calculation, Thresholds and Reporting of Inter-Limb Strength Asymmetry: A Systematic Review. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine20(4), 594-617.

Melia, G., Siegkas, P., Levick, J., & Apps, C. (2020). Insoles of uniform softer material reduced plantar pressure compared to dual-material insoles during regular and loaded gait. Applied Ergonomics, 91, 103298.

Apps, C., Rodrigues, P., Isherwood, J., & Lake, M. (2020). Footwear insoles with higher frictional properties enhance performance by reducing in-shoe sliding during rapid changes of direction. Journal of Sports Sciences38(2), 206-213.

Apps C, Lake M, O'Brien T and Sterzing T Apps, C., Lake, M., O’Brien, T. D., & Sterzing, T. (2019). Unpredictable shoe midsole perturbations provide an instability stimulus to train ankle posture and motion during forward and lateral gym lunges. Journal of sports sciences, 1-11.

Apps C, Sterzing T, O'Brien T, Ding R and Lake M. (2017). Biomechanical and neuromuscular adaptations to unpredictably uneven surfaces can be simulated with an irregularly deforming shoe midsole during walking and running. Footwear Science9(2), 65-77.

Apps C, Sterzing T, O'Brien T and Lake M. (2016). Lower limb joint stiffness and muscle co-contraction adaptations to instability footwear during locomotion. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 31, 55-62.

Apps, C., Liu, H., Pykett, J & Sterzing, T. (2015) Gym training shoe requirements in China and England. Footwear Science, 7(1), 51-62.

See all of Charlotte Apps's publications...

Press expertise

- Biomechanical adaptations to footwear

- Plantar pressure

- Agility performance