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Charlotte Apps

Charlotte Apps

Senior Lecturer

School of Science & Technology

Staff Group(s)


Dr Apps teaches biomechanics modules to Undergraduate and Postgraduate students and is the year tutor to first year Sport and Exercise Science students. Currently, she is module leader of Experimental Biomechanics (SPOR20042) and contributes to the Principle of Biomechanics (SPOR10042), Applied Biomechanics (SPOR30042), Biomechanics of Optimal Performance (SPOR40291) and Sport Science in Action (SPOR40041) modules. Dr Apps is part of the Sport Performance research group within the Sport, Health and Performance Enhancement (SHAPE) Research Centre.

Career overview

Dr Apps obtained a BSc in Anatomy and Human Biology from the University of Liverpool, and then obtained an MSc from Liverpool John Moores University. Dr Apps completed her Ph.D in biomechanics from Liverpool John Moores University, which was partly studied at Li Ning (China) Sports Goods Co. Ltd. Prior to joining NTU Dr Apps was a teaching assistant and research officer at Liverpool John Moores University.

Research areas

Dr Apps’s research has focused on understanding adaptations to functional footwear that can either enhance training intensity, improve performance or comfort and reduce injury risk. Specific past and present projects include:

  • The biomechanical and neuromuscular adaptations to shoe-surface instability
  • The role of in-shoe friction in reducing foot movement inside the shoe during dynamic cutting manoeuvres
  • The influence of insole material properties on plantar pressure and subjective footwear comfort
  • Biomechanical asymmetry in normal and injury prone athletes across different sports

Applications for MRes/ MPhil/ PhD study in the areas identified above are encouraged. Further information may be obtained on the NTU Research Degrees website:

External activity

Dr Apps is a member of Footwear Science, The British Association of Sport and Exercise Science (BASES) and the International Society of Biomechanics.

Dr Apps is a member of the self-assessment Athena Swann committee within the Department of Sport Science.

Sponsors and collaborators

Past or present research projects have been funded and supported by sporting goods manufacturers and in collaboration with academic institutions:

Li Ning Sports Science Research Center

Xtep (China) Co Ltd

New Balance Athletics, Inc

Liverpool John Moores University


APPS, C., RODRIGUES, P., ISHERWOOD, J. and LAKE, M., 2019. Footwear insoles with higher frictional properties enhance performance by reducing in-shoe sliding during rapid changes of direction. Journal of Sports Sciences. ISSN 0264-0414

APPS, C., LAKE, M., O’BRIEN, T.D. and STERZING, T., 2019. Unpredictable shoe midsole perturbations provide an instability stimulus to train ankle posture and motion during forward and lateral gym lunges. Journal of Sports Sciences, 37 (17), pp. 1951-1961. ISSN 0264-0414

APPS, C., STERZING, T., O'BRIEN, T., DING, R. and LAKE, M., 2017. Biomechanical locomotion adaptations on uneven surfaces can be simulated with a randomly deforming shoe midsole. Footwear Science, 9 (2), pp. 65-77. ISSN 1942-4280

APPS, C., STERZING, T., O'BRIEN, T. and LAKE, M., 2016. Lower limb joint stiffness and muscle co-contraction adaptations to instability footwear during locomotion. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 31, pp. 55-62. ISSN 1050-6411

APPS, C., STERZING, T., O’BRIEN, T., DING, R. and LAKE, M., 2016. Ankle and knee joint stiffness in walking; unpredictable and predictable shoe perturbations. Foot and Ankle Surgery, 22 (2), pp. 17-18. ISSN 1268-7731

APPS, C., LIU, H., PYKETT, J. and STERZING, T., 2015. Gym training shoe requirements in China and England. Footwear Science, 7 (1), pp. 51-62. ISSN 1942-4280

See all of Charlotte Apps's publications...

Press expertise

- Biomechanical adaptations to footwear

- Plantar pressure

- Agility performance