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Florence Liggins

Research Fellow

School of Science & Technology


Dr. Florence Liggins is a Research Fellow in Physics (Physics | Nottingham Trent University) within the Imaging & Sensing for Archaeology, Art History & Conservation (ISAAC) Laboratory ISAAC Lab | Nottingham Trent University (

Career overview

Research Fellow (Physics), Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham (2018-Present)

Research Scholar, NIST Quantum measurements Division, Washington D.C. (2017-2018)

Postdoctoral Researcher (Space & Atmospheric Physics), Imperial College London, London (2017)

PhD Physics, Imperial College London, London (2011-2017)

Research Assistant (Astrophysics), Cardiff University (2010)

MPhys Physics with Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff (2007-2011)

Research areas

Florence’s current research is largely devoted to remote spectral imaging and sensing as well as data science for the analysis of a broad range of cultural heritage, including murals and architectural interiors, degraded ancient bronze, historical cartographic collections and carbonised papyri.

Research in data science includes development of machine-learning methods for large scale data reduction and material mapping; interactive graphical database for large scale historical genealogical data, and more recently 3D data visualisation of spectral imaging datasets and material maps for scientific and outreach purposes.

Previous work also has its applications in industry and involves development of an adapted airborne imaging system, and methods in outdoors spectral imaging calibration, for the large scale mapping of metal degradation.


Liggins, F., Vichi, A., Liu, W., Hogg, A., Kogou, S., Chen, J. and Liang, H., 2022. Hyperspectral imaging solutions for the non-invasive detection and automated mapping of copper trihydroxychlorides in ancient bronze. Heritage Science10(1), p.142.

Zhang, Q., Cui, S., Liu, L., Wang, J., Wang, J., Zhang, E., Peng, J., Kogou, S., Liggins, F., & Liang, H., 2021. Deep learning for the extraction of sketches from spectral images of historical paintings. Proceedings of SPIE, 11784(July), 1178407–2.

Read, M., Meek, A., Liggins, F., Cheung, C.S., Kogou, S., Butler, L., Korenberg, C., Ling, D. and Liang, H., 2021. Investigations into the composition and deterioration processes of 16th century Limoges enamels using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), spectral imaging and x-ray fluorescence (XRF). In Optics for Arts, Architecture, and Archaeology VIII (Vol. 11784, p. 1178413). SPIE.

Liggins, F. S., Pickering, J. C., Nave, G., Kramida, A., Gamrath, S., & Quinet, P., 2021. New Ritz Wavelengths and Transition Probabilities of Parity-forbidden [Mn II] Lines of Astrophysical Interest. The Astrophysical Journal, 907(2), 69.

Liggins, F. S., Pickering, J. C., Nave, G., Ward, J. W., & Tchang-Brillet, W.-Ü. L., 2021. The Spectrum and Term Analysis of Singly Ionized Manganese. The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 252(1), 10.

Pereira-Pardo, L., Liggins, F., Butler, L., Kogou, S. and Liang, H., 2020. Extracting maps of meaning from archival data: testing the applicability of AI-based spectral clustering on multiband images of historic cartographic collections. In Optics for Arts, Architecture, and Archaeology VIII (Vol. 11784, pp. 11-19). SPIE.

Li, Y., Cheung, C. S., Kogou, S., Liggins, F., & Liang, H. (2019). Standoff Raman spectroscopy for architectural interiors from 3-15 m distances. Optics Express, 27(22), 31338.

Pickering, J., Teresa Belmonte, M., Clear, C., Liggins, F., & Concepcion-Mairey, F. (2019). Recent advances in experimental laboratory astrophysics for stellar astrophysics applications and future data needs. Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, 15(S350), 220-228. doi:10.1017/S1743921320000642

Nave, G., Sansonetti, C.J., Townley-Smith, K., Pickering, J.C., Thorne, A.P., Liggins, F. and Clear, C., 2017. Comprehensive atomic wavelengths, energy levels, and hyperfine structure for singly ionized iron-group elements. Canadian Journal of Physics95(9), pp.811-816.

Grainger, W.F., Juanola-Parramon, R., Ade, P.A., Griffin, M., Liggins, F., Pascale, E., Savini, G. and Swinyard, B., 2012. Demonstration of spectral and spatial interferometry at THz frequencies. Applied optics51(12), pp.2202-2211.