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Lei Xu

Lei Xu

Senior Lecturer

Department of Engineering

Staff Group(s)


Lei Xu is a Senior Lecturer in Electrical Engineering at Department of Engineering in School of Science & Technology.

Career overview

Dr Lei Xu obtained his PhD (2014) in Optics from Nankai University, China. Since then, he has been performing research and engineering activities in different universities: Nankai University, The Australian National University and the University of New South Wales. His research interests are linear and nonlinear nanophotonics, optoelectronics meta-devices, nanostructure-enabled low carbon technologies (i.e. solar energy harvesting), and bio-photonics.

Before joining NTU, Lei has worked as:

  • Research Fellow (2018 -2020), University of New South Wales and Australian National University, Australia
  • Postdoctoral Fellow (2017- 2018), Research School of Physics, Australian National University, Australia
  • Visiting Fellow (2016 -  2017), Research School of Physics, Australian National University, Australia
  • Postdoctoral Fellow (2014 - 2016), College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, China

Research areas

  • Deep-learning Enabled Meta-Optics: inverse design of optically resonant meta-structures for meta-optical and opto-electronic devices, in both linear and nonlinear regimes: flat optical devices with metasurfaces, optical beam steering, night-vision technologies.
  • Low-Carbon Technologies: meta-optical system for energy harvesting applications, including energy conversion, solar cells, radiative cooling, heat generation and control etc.
  • Bio-Photonics: designing functional meta-optical systems for bio-sensing applications, and wearable sensors.
  • Light-Matter Interactions: Investigating light-matter interactions with optical antennas. Manipulations of electromagnetic fields at the nanoscale based on optically-induced electric and magnetic multipolar resonances. Optical antennas are devices that convert freely propagating optical radiation into localised energy. They enable the control and manipulation of optical fields at the nanoscale, and hold promise for enhancing the performance and efficiency of photodetection, light emission and sensing.

External activity

Reviewer of journals: ACS Nano, Nano Letters, Light: Science & Applications, ACS Photonics, Laser & Photonics Reviews, Applied Physics Letters, Photonics, etc.

Associate Editor of the journal Nonlinear Optics | Frontiers in Photonics (


Book chapters:

  1. L. Huang, L. Xu, A. E Miroshnichenko, ''Deep Learning Enabled Nanophotonics'' in Advances in Deep Learning, 2020, IntechOpen.
  2. L. Xu, M. Rahmani, D. Powell, D. Neshev, and A. Miroshnichenko, "Nonlinear Metamaterials." Emerging Frontiers in Nonlinear Science. Springer, Cham, 2020. 55-79.
  3. C. De Angelis, L. Carletti, D. Rocco, A. Locatelli, L. Ghirardini, M. Finazzi, M. Celebrano, L. Xu and A. Miroshnichenko, “Harmonic generation with Mie-resonant nanostructures” Chapter 10 of Nonlinear Meta-Optics, De Angelis, Leo, Neshev-K43694/ 9781138576544, 2020, Taylor & Francis Group.

Peer-Reviewed Journal papers:


  1. Zhang, L., Gao, K., Lu, F., Xu, L., Rahmani, M., Sun, L., Gao, F., Zhang, W. and Mei, T., 2022. Visible-Band Chiroptical Meta-devices with Phase-Change Adjusted Optical Chirality. Nano Lett. 2022, DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c02739
  2. Zheng, Z., Xu, L.*, Huang, L., Smirnova, D., Hong, P., Ying, C., & Rahmani, M. (2022). Boosting second-harmonic generation in the LiNbO 3 metasurface using high-Q guided resonances and bound states in the continuum. Physical Review B, 106(12), 125411.
  3. L. Xu, M. Rahmani, ‘Programmable structured surfaces can change the future of wireless communications,’ Light Science & Applications 2022, 11, 196 (Impact factor (IF): 20.257, Scopus: 98%)
  4. J. Zhang, J. Ma, M. Parry, M. Cai, R. Camacho Morales, L. Xu, D. Neshev, A. Sukhorukov, 'Spatially entangled photon-pairs from lithium niobate nonlocal metasurfaces.' Science Advances 2022, 8, 30  (IF: 14.957, scopus: 96%)
  5. R. Camacho-Morales, L. Xu, H. Zhang, S. Ha, L. Krivitsky, A. Kuznetsovc, M. Rahmani, D. Neshev, 'Sum-frequency generation in high-Q GaP metasurfaces driven by leaky-wave guided modes', Nano Letters 2022, DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c01349 (IF: 12.262, ranked above 98%)
  6. P. Hong, L. Xu*, and M. Rahmani, 'Dual bound states in the continuum enhanced second harmonic generation with Transition Metal Dichalcogenides monolayer', Opto-Electronic Advances 2022, 5, 200097 (IF: 8.933, Scopus: expected to be 95%)
  7. L. Sun, L. Xu, J. Wang, Y. Jiao, Z. Ma, Z. Ma, C. Chang, X. Yang, and R. Wang. "Pixelated frequency-agile metasurface for broadband terahertz molecular fingerprint sensing." Nanoscale (2022): 10.1039/D2NR01561G (IF: 8.307, scopus: 91%)
  8. Li, Ziyuan, Li Li, Fan Wang, Lei Xu, Qian Gao, Ahmed Alabadla, Kun Peng, Kaushal Vora, Haroldo T. Hattori, Hark Hoe Tan, Chennupati Jagadish and Lan Fu. "Investigation of light–matter interaction in single vertical nanowires in ordered nanowire arrays." Nanoscale 14, no. 9 (2022): 3527-3536. (IF: 8.307, scopus: 91%)
  9. Hong, Peilong, Lei Xu*, Cuifeng Ying, and Mohsen Rahmani. "Flatband mode in photonic moiré superlattice for boosting second-harmonic generation with monolayer van der Waals crystals." Optics Letters 47, no. 9 (2022): 2326-2329.  (IF: 3.560, scopus: 84%)
  10. Xu, L.*, Smirnova, D., Morales, R.C., Aoni, R.A., Kamali, K.Z., Cai, M., Ying, C., Zheng, Z., Miroshnichenko, A., Neshev, D. and Rahmani, M., 2022. Enhanced four-wave mixing from multi-resonant silicon dimer-hole membrane metasurfaces. New Journal of Physics (2022).24 035002  (IF: 3.716, scopus: 86%)
  11. R. Ahmmed Aoni, S. Manjunath, B. I. Karawdeniya, K. Zangeneh Kamali, L. Xu, A. M. Damry, C. J. Jackson, A. Tricoli, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Rahmani, D. N. Neshev, "Resonant Dielectric Metagratings for Response Intensified Optical Sensing", Advanced Functional Materials (2022),  DOI: 10.1002/adfm.202103143.  (IF: 19.924, scopus: 98%)
  12. Yang, Z., Liu, M., Komar, A., Xu, L. and Neshev, D.N., 2022. Phase‐Only Tuning of Extreme Huygens Metasurfaces Enabled by Optical AnisotropyAdvanced Optical Materials (2022)10(2), p.2101893.  (IF: 10.050, scopus: 95%)
  13. Rocco, D., Morales, R.C., Xu, L., Zilli, A., Vinel, V., Finazzi, M., Celebrano, M., Leo, G., Rahmani, M., Jagadish, C. and Tan, H., 2022. Second order nonlinear frequency generation at the nanoscale in dielectric platforms. Advances in Physics: X (2022), 7(1), p.2022992.  (IF: 8.526, scopus: 94%)
  14. C. Ying, T. Ma, L. Xu, and M. Rahmani, ‘Localised Nanopore Fabrication via Controlled Breakdown’, Nanomaterials, doi: 10.3390/nano12142384 (IF: 5.719, ranked above 80%)

Before 2022:

  1. C. Meng, W. Li, Z. Xie, L. Zhang, L. Xu, F. Gao, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao. "Metallic nanosphere-assisted coupling ultrafast surface plasmon polaritons background-free tip nanofocusing." Optics Letters (2021) 46, no. 22: 5554-5557.
  2. R. Wang, L. Xu, J. Wang, L. Sun, Y. Jiao, Y. Meng, S. Chen, C. Chang and C. Fan, "Electric Fano resonance-based terahertz metasensorsNanoscale, 2021, DOI: 10.1039/D1NR04477J.
  3. Saadabad, Reza Masoudian, Marcus Cai, Fu Deng, Lei Xu (corresponding author), and Andrey E. Miroshnichenko. "Structured light excitation of toroidal dipoles in dielectric nanodisks." Physical Review B (2021) 104, no. 16: 165402.
  4. Lu Zhang, Chao Meng, Guanghong Zhang, Donghui Bai, Feng Gao, Lei Xu, Wending Zhang, Ting Mei, and Jianlin Zhao, "Nanofocusing of a metallized double periodic arranged nanocone array for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy," Opt. Express (2021) 29, 28086-28095
  5. Z. Zheng, A. Komar, K. Zangeneh Kamali, J. Noble, L. Whichello, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Rahmani, D. N. Neshev, Lei Xu (corresponding author), "Planar narrow bandpass filter based on Si resonant metasurface", Journal of Applied Physics  (2021), 130, 053105.
  6. D. Bai, L. Zhang, C. Meng, L. Xu (corresponding author), F. Gao, and W. Zhang*, "Quantitatively analysis of nonlinear/linear nanofocusing of plasmonic tips array driven via radial vector beam" Optik (2021), 167409.
  7. R. Camacho-Morales, D. Rocco, L. Xu, V. F. Gili, N. Dimitrov, L. Stoyanov, Z. Ma, A. Komar, M. Lysevych, F. Karouta, A. Dreischuh, H. Tan, G. Leo, C. De Angelis, C. Jagadish, A. Miroshnichenko, M. Rahmani, and D. Neshev, "Infrared upconversion imaging in nonlinear metasurfaces", Advanced Photonics (2021), 3(3), 036002.
  8. J. Lee, L. Huang, L. Xu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, R. Lee, "Broadband Control on Scattering Events with Interferometric Coherent Waves", New Journal Physics (2021), doi:10.1088/1367-2630/abffa7.
  9. A. Komar, R. Ahmmed Aoni, L. Xu, M. Rahmani, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and D. N. Neshev, "Edge Detection with Mie-Resonant Dielectric Metasurfaces," ACS Photonics (2021), doi:10.1021/acsphotonics.0c01874.
  10. Lujun Huang, Lei Xu (co-first author), Mohsen Rahmani, Dragomir Neshev, Andrey E. Miroshnichenko, "Pushing the Limit of High-Q Mode of a Single Dielectric Microcavity ," Advanced Photonics (2021) 3(1), 016004
  11. I. Volkovskaya, L. Xu, L. Huang, A. I Smirnov, A. E Miroshnichenko, D. Smirnova, "Multipolar second-harmonic generation from high- quasi-BIC states in nanoresonators", Nanophotonics (2020), 9(12), 3953-3963.
  12. L. Xu, M. Rahmani, Y. Ma, D. A. Smirnova, K. Zangeneh Kamali, F. Deng, Y. Chiang, L. Huang, H. Zhang, S. Gould, D. N. Neshev, and A. E. Miroshnichenko, "Enhanced Light-Matter Interactions in Dielectric Nanostructures via Machine Learning Approach", Advanced Photonics (2020), 2(2), 026003.
  13. L. Huang, L. Xu, M. Woolley, A. E Miroshnichenko, "Trends in Quantum Nanophotonics", Advanced Quantum Technologies (2020), 3(4), 1900126.
  14. F Deng, H Liu, L Xu, S Lan, A. E Miroshnichenko, "Strong exciton-plasmon coupling in WS2 monolayer in hybrid structures with liquid Ga nanoparticles", Laser & Photonics Reviews (2020),  14(4), 1900420.
  15. L. Xu, G. Saerens, M. Timofeeva, D. Smirnova, I. Volkovskaya, M. Lysevych, R. Camacho-Morales, M. Cai, K. Zangeneh Kamali, L. Huang, F. Karouta, H. Tan, C. Jagadish, A. Miroshnichenko, R. Grange D. Neshev and M. Rahmani, "Forward and Backward Switching of Nonlinear Unidirectional Emission from GaAs Nanoantennas", ACS Nano (2019), 14(2), 1379-1389
  16. L. Xu, K. Zangeneh Kamali, L. Huang, M. Rahmani, A. Smirnov, R. Camacho-Morales, Y. Ma, G. Zhang, M. Wolley, D. Neshev, and A. Miroshnichenko, “Dynamic nonlinear image tuning through magnetic dipole quasi-BIC ultra-thin resonators,” Advanced Science (2019), 6, 1802119.
  17. L. Xu and M. Rahmani, “Surface that perceives depth: 3D imaging with metasurfaces,” Advanced Photonics (2019), 1(3), 030501.
  18. J. Sautter, L. Xu (co-first author), A. Miroshnichenko, M. Lysevych, D. Smirnova, I. Volkovskaya, R. Camacho-Marales, K. Kamali, F. Karouta, K. Vora, H. Tan, M. Kauranen, I. Staude, C. Jagadish, D. Neshev, and M. Rahmani, “Tailoring Second-Harmonic Emission from (111)-GaAs Nanoantennas,” Nano Letters (2019), 19, 3905.
  19. K. Zangeneh Kamali, L. Xu (co-first author), J. Ward, K. Wang, G. Li, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. Ne- shev, and M. Rahmani, “Reversible Image Contrast Manipulation with Thermally Tunable Dielectric Metasurfaces,” Small (2019), DOI: 10.1002/smll.201805142.
  20. G. Marino, A. S. Solntsev, L. Xu, V. Gili, L. carletti, A. Poddubny, D. Smirnova, H. Chen, G. Zhang, A. V. Zayats, C. Angelis, G. Leo, Y. Kivshar, A. Sukhorukov, and D. N.Neshev, "Spontaneous photon-pair generation from a dielectric nanoantenna," Optica 2019, 6, 1416-1422.
  21. R. Colom, L. Xu, L. Marini, F. Bedu, I. Ozerov, T. Begou, J. Lumeau, A. E. Miroshnichnko, D. N. Neshev, B. Kuhlmey, S. Palomba and N. Bonod, “Enhanced Four-Wave Mixing in Doubly Resonant Si Nanoresonators,” ACS Photonics. 2019, DOI: acsphotonics.9b00442.
  22. A. Rifat, M. Rahmani, L. Xu, K. Zangeneh Kamali, A. Komar, J. Yan, D. Neshev, and A. Miroshnichenko, “High-Efficiency Visible Light Manipulation Using Dielectric Metasurfaces,” Scientific Reports (2019), 9(1), 6510.
  23. A. Haque, M. Morshed, Z. Li, L. Li, L. Xu, L. Fu, A. Miroshnichenko and H. Hattori, “Damage analysis of a perfect broadband absorber by a femtosecond laser,” Scientific Reports (2019), 9, 1.
  24. Y. Jiao, L. Xu, B. Han, F. Bo, J. Xu and G. Zhang, “Self-focusing and self-bending of surface plasmons in longitudinally modulated metasurfaces,” Optics Communications (2019), 450(1), 136.
  25. M. Morshed, L. Xu and H. Hattori, “Dual-polarization star-gap nano-antenna,” Journal of the Optical Society of America B (2019), 36, 2913.
  26. R. Camacho-Marales, G. Bautista, X. Zhang, L. Xu, L. Turquet, A. Miroshnichenko, H. Tan, A. Lampri- anidis, M. Rahmani, C. Jagadish, D. Neshev, and M. Kauranen, “Resonant harmonic generation in individual AlGaAs nanoantennas probed by vector beams,” Nanoscale (2019), DOI: 10.1039/C8NR08034H.
  27. M. Rahmani, G. Leo, I. Brener, A. Zayats, S. Maier, C. De Angelis, H. Tan, V. Gili, F. Karouta, R. Oulton, K. Vora, M. Lysevych, I. Staude, L. Xu, A. Miroshnichenko, C. Jagadish, and D. Neshev, “Nonlinear frequency conversion in optical nanoantennas and metasurfaces: materials evolution and fabrication,” Opto-Electronic Advances (2018), 1, 180021.
  28. L. Xu, M. Rahmani, K. Kamali, A. Lamprianidis, L. Ghirardini, J. Sautter, R. Camacho-Morales, H. Chen, M. Parry, I. Staude, G. Zhang, D. Neshev, A. Miroshnichenko, “Boosting third-harmonic generation by a mirror-enhanced anapole resonator,” Light: Science & Applications (2018), 7, 1-8.
  29. K. Wang, J. G Titchener, S. Kruk, L. Xu, H. Chung, M. Parry, I. Kravchenko, Y. Chen, A. Solntsev, Y. Kivshar, D. Neshev, A. Sukhorukov, “Quantum metasurface for multi-photon interference and state reconstruction,” Science (2018), 361, 6407.
  30. L. Xu, M. Rahmani, D. Smirnova, K. Zangeneh Kamali, G. Zhang, D. Neshev, A. Miroshnichenko, “Highly-efficient longitudinal second-harmonic generation from doubly-resonant AlGaAs nanoantennas,” Photonics 2018, 5, 3.
  31. A. Rifat, M. Rahmani, L. Xu, A. Miroshnichenko, “Hybrid metasurface based tunable near-perfect absorber and plasmonic sensor,” Materials 2018, 11, 7.
  32. H. Chen, M. Liu, L. Xu, D. Neshev, “Valley-selective directional emission from a monolayer transition metal dichilcogenide mediated by plasmonic nanoantenna,” Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology (2018), 9, 780.
  33. J. Ward, K. Zangeneh Kamali, L. Xu, G. Zhang, A. Miroshnichenko, M. Rahmani, “High-contrast and reversible scattering switching via hybrid metal-dielectric metasurfaces,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 2018, 9, 460.
  34. E. Melik-Gaykazyan, S. Kruk, R. Camacho-Morales, L. Xu, M. Rahmani, K. Zangeneh Kamali, A. Lamprianidis, A. Miroshnichenko, A. Fedyanin, D. Neshev, Y. Kivshar, “Selective third-harmonic generation by structured light in Mie-resonant nanoparticles,” ACS Photonics 2017, acsphotonics.7b01277.
  35. H. Zuo, D. Choi, X. Gai, P. Ma, L. Xu, D. N. Neshev, B. Zhang, and B. Luther-Davies, “High-Efficiency All-Dielectric Metalenses for Mid-Infrared Imaging,” Advanced Optical Materials (2017), 1700585.
  36. M. Rahmani, L. Xu (co-first author), A. Miroshnichenko, A. Komar, R. Camacho-Morales, H. Chen, Y. Zárate, S. Kruk, G. Zhang, D. N. Neshev, Y. S. Kivshar, “Reversible Thermal Tuning of All-Dielectric Metasurfaces,” Advanced Functional Materials (2017), 1700580.
  37. S. Kruk, R. Camacho-Morales, L. Xu, M. Rahmani, D.A. Smirnova, L. Wang, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, D. N. Neshev, Y. S. Kivshar, "Nonlinear Optical Magnetism revealed by Second-Harmonic Generation in Nanoantennas," Nano Letters (2017), 17, 3194.
  38. L. Wang, S. Kruk, L. Xu, M. Rahmani, D. Smirnova, A. Solntsev, I. Kravchenko, D. Neshev, Y. Kivshar, "Shaping the third-harmonic radiation from silicon nanodimers," Nanoscale (2017), 9, 2201.
  39. D. Neshev, R. Camacho-Morales, M. Rahmani, S. Kruk, L. Wang, L. Xu, D. Smirnova, A. Solntsev, A. Miroshnichenko, et al., “Manipulating second-harmonic light from semiconductor nanocrystals,” SPIE Newsroom 2017, 2–5
  40. R. Camacho-Morales, M. Rahmani, S. Kruk, L. Wang, L. Xu, D. A. Smirnova, A. S. Solntsev, A. Miroshnichenko, H. H. Tan, F. Karouta, S. Naureen, K. Vora, L. Carletti, C. De Angelis, C. Jagadish, Y. S. Kivshar, D. N. Neshev, "Nonlinear generation of vector beams from AlGaAs nanoantennas" Nano Letters (2016), 16, 7191.
  41. B. Han, L. Xu, Y. Dou, J. Xu, G. Zhang, Bending light via adiabatic optical transition in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices, Scientific Reports (2015), 5, 15805.
  42. L. Xu, Y. Dou, F. Bo, J. Xu, G. Zhang, Two-photon correlation and photon transport in disordered passive parity-time-symmetric lattices, Physical Review A ( 2015), 91, 23817.
  43. L. Xu, H. Yang, P. Hong, F. Bo, J. Xu, G. Zhang, Lensless imaging based on coherent backscattering in random media, AIP Advances (2014), 4, 87124.
  44. Y. Dou, L. Xu, B. Han, F. Bo, J. Xu, G. Zhang, Quantum correlation of path-entangled two-photon states in waveguide arrays with defects, AIP Advances (2014), 4, 47117.
  45. L. Xu, Y. Yin, F. Bo, J. Xu, G. Zhang, Anomalous refraction in disordered one-dimensional photonic lattices, Journal of the Optical Society of America B (2014), 31, 105.
  46. P. Hong, L. Xu, Z. Zhai, G. Zhang, High visibility two-photon interference with classical light., Optics Express (2013), 21, 14056.
  47. L. Xu, Y. Yin, F. Bo, J. Xu, G. Zhang, Transverse localization of light in the disordered one-dimensional waveguide arrays in the linear and nonlinear regimes, Optics Communications (2013), 296, 65.
  48. L. Xu, G. Zhang, N. Xu, F. Bo, F. Gao, W. Fan, J. Xu, K. P. Lor, K. S. Chiang, Active chromatic control on the group velocity of light at arbitrary wavelength in benzocyclobutene polymer, Optics Express (2009), 17, 18292.

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