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William Navaraj

Senior Lecturer

Department of Engineering

Staff Group(s)


Lecturer/Senior Lecturer in Electronic Engineering

Career overview

Dr. William Navaraj is a Chartered Engineer and a senior lecturer in the Department of Engineering at Nottingham Trent University.  He has more than 8 years of research experience working on various inter-disciplinary research projects. He started his career at HoneyWell. He carried out his PhD in Electrical and Electronic engineering at University of Glasgow where he also later worked as a post-doctoral researcher and have contributed in developing key demonstrators for projects funded by EPSRC and European Commission. He was a theme leader of Assistive Robotics Technology theme at Bendable Electronics and Sensing Technologies (BEST) group at University of Glasgow. Prior to joining University of Glasgow, he worked as a Scientist at CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI) and as an Assistant Professor at Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR). He has 50+ peer-reviewed publications in international journal/conferences, 2 filed patents and authored 2 book chapters. He has acted as a reviewer for several journals and conferences.

Research areas

Research Areas:

  • Flexible micro/nanoelectronic devices and system
  • Electronic skin
  • Smart sensors and intelligent systems
  • Bio-mimetic electronic systems
  • Wearable systems
  • Assistive robots


ERDF Funding (Project with Quensus)

ICUReNxNW Funding (InnovateUK)

UofG Principal’s Early Career Mobility Funding

IET Travel Award

Raman-Charpark Fellowship (ANA)

CSIR-QHS Fellowship

CSIR-Network Project (Co-PI)

Opportunities arise to carry out UG/PG projects, research towards an MPhil / PhD and post-doctoral research in the areas identified above. Get in touch if you are interested in any of the above or related research areas and would like to discuss what specific topics/proposals are on offer.










Fully-funded PhD Studentship:

External activity

Societal/Institutional Membership:

  • Chartered Engineer
  • Member of Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
  • Member of Institution of Engineering and Technology
  • E-futures
  • IEEE Sensors Council Young Professional Committee Member
  • Associate Fellow Higher Education Academy

Peer Reviewer:

  • Proceedings of the IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Robotics
  • IEEE Access
  • IEEE Sensors Journal
  • Sensor Review
  • Advanced Robotics
  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
  • Solid State Sciences
  • International Journal of Electronics
  • Materials & Design


Refer to the Google scholar profile page for the full list of publication.

ORCID: 0000-0003-4753-2015

Selected Journal Articles:

  1. M Ntagios, H Nassar, A Pullanchiyodan, WT Navaraj, R Dahiya, Robotic hands with intrinsic tactile sensing via 3D printed soft pressure sensors, Advanced Intelligent Systems, 2019.
  2. W Navaraj, R Dahiya, Fingerprint‐Enhanced Capacitive‐Piezoelectric Flexible Sensing Skin to Discriminate Static and Dynamic Tactile Stimuli,  Advanced Intelligent Systems, 1900051, 2019.
  3. F Liu, WT Navaraj, N Yogeswaran, DH Gregory, R Dahiya, van der Waals Contact Engineering of Graphene Field-Effect Transistors for Large-Area Flexible Electronics, ACS nano 13 (3), 3257-3268, 2019
  4. L Manjakkal, WT Navaraj, CG Núñez, R Dahiya, Graphene–Graphite Polyurethane Composite Based High‐Energy Density Flexible Supercapacitors, Advanced Science 6 (7), 1802251, 2019.
  5. D Shakthivel, WT Navaraj, S Champet, DH Gregory, RS Dahiya, Propagation of amorphous oxide nanowires via the VLS mechanism: growth kinetics, Nanoscale Advances 1 (9), 3568-3578, 2019.
  6. S Gupta, WT Navaraj, L Lorenzelli, R Dahiya, Equal Contribution, Ultra-thin chips for high-performance flexible electronics,  npj Flexible Electronics 2 (1), 8, 2018.
  7. WT Navaraj, S Gupta, L Lorenzelli, R Dahiya, Wafer Scale Transfer of Ultrathin Silicon Chips on Flexible Substrates for High Performance Bendable Systems,  Advanced Electronic Materials 4 (4), 1700277, 2018.
  8. W Dang, L Manjakkal, WT Navaraj, L Lorenzelli, V Vinciguerra, R Dahiya, Stretchable wireless system for sweat pH monitoring, Biosensors and Bioelectronics 107, 192-202, 2018.
  9. N Yogeswaran, WT Navaraj, S Gupta, F Liu, V Vinciguerra, L Lorenzelli, R Dahiya, Piezoelectric graphene field effect transistor pressure sensors for tactile sensing, Applied Physics Letters 113 (1), 014102, 2018.
  10. CG Núñez, A Vilouras, WT Navaraj, F Liu, R Dahiya, ZnO Nanowires Based Flexible UV Photodetector System for Wearable Dosimetry,  IEEE Sensors Journal, 2018.
  11. A Polishchuk, WT Navaraj, H Heidari, R Dahiya, Multisensory Smart Glove for Tactile Feedback in Prosthetic Hand, Procedia Engineering 168, 1605-1608, 2016.
  12. W T Navaraj et al, Nanowire FET Based Neural Element for Robotic Tactile Sensing Skin, Frontiers in neuroscience 11, 501, 2017.
  13. N Yogeswaran, W Dang, WT Navaraj, D Shakthivel, S Khan, EO Polat, ..., New materials and advances in making electronic skin for interactive robots, Advanced Robotics 29 (21), 1359-1373, 2015.

Selected Conference Publications:

  1. F Liu, N Yogeswaran, W Navaraj, R Dahiya, Flexible Logic Circuits by using Van Der Waals Contacted Graphene Field-Effect Transistors,  2019 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), 1-5, Sapporo, Japan
  2. WT Navaraj, H Nassar, R Dahiya, Prosthetic Hand with Biomimetic Tactile Sensing and Force Feedback,  2019 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), 1-4, Sapporo, Japan.
  3. J Neto, A Zumeit, W Navaraj, R Dahiya, Reliability investigation of Via-bridges for flexible electronics, 2019 IEEE International Conference on Flexible and Printable Sensors and Systems (FLEPS), Glasgow, UK
  4. CG Núñez, F Liu, WT Navaraj, A Christou, D Shakthivel, R Dahiya, Heterogeneous integration of contact-printed semiconductor nanowires for high-performance devices on large areas, Microsystems & Nanoengineering 4 (1), 22, 2018.
  5. O Ozioko, WT Navaraj, N Yogeswaran, M Hersh, R Dahiya, Tactile Communication System for the Interaction between Deafblind and Robots, Oral paper presented at 2018 27th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN).
  6. H Nassar, M Ntagios, WT Navaraj, R Dahiva, Multi-Material 3D Printed Bendable Smart Sensing Structures, 2018 IEEE SENSORS.
  7. M Ntagios, WT Navaraj, R Dahiya, 3D Printed Phalanx Packaged with Embedded Pressure Sensor,  2018 IEEE SENSORS.
  8. WT Navarai, O Ozioko, R Dahiya, Capacitive-Piezoelectric Tandem Architecture for Biomimetic Tactile Sensing in Prosthetic Hand, 2018 IEEE SENSORS.
  9. O Ozioko, W Taube, M Hersh, R Dahiya, SmartFingerBraille: A tactile sensing and actuation based communication glove for deafblind people, 2017 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), Edinburgh, UK.
  10. F Liu, W Taube, N Yogeswaran, D Gregory, R Dahiya, Transforming the Short-term Sensing Stimuli to Long-term e-skin Memory, 2017 IEEE SENSORS.
  11. CG Núñez, W Taube, X Liang, R Dahiya, Live demonstration: Energy autonomous electronic skin for robotics
    2017 IEEE SENSORS.
  12. CG Nunez, W Taube, F Liu, R Dahiya, ZnO nanowires based flexible UV photodetectors for wearable dosimetry, 2017 IEEE SENSORS.

Book Chapter:

William Navaraj, Clara Smith, Ravinder Dahiya, Book title: Wearable Bioelectronics, Eds: Anthony Turner, Alberto Salleo, Onur Parlak, Chapter title: e-skin and wearable systems for healthcare, 2020.

See all of William Navaraj's publications...