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Medical Engineering Design Research Group

Unit(s) of assessment: General Engineering

Research theme: Medical Technologies and Advanced Materials

School: School of Science and Technology

Welcome to MEDRG

The Medical Engineering Design Research Group (MEDRG) at Nottingham Trent University is an interdisciplinary group, which brings together a wide range of academics, clinicians, surgeons, healthcare companies and other medical professionals whose interests focus on medical engineering design across a wide range of research specialisms.

These include wearable technologies, additive and subtractive manufacturing for medical applications, biomimetics, surgical robotics, augmented/virtual/immersive technologies and environments, and investigative research related to the utilisation of ‘smart materials’ for medical and surgical applications.

Our focus

Robotic Technologies for Surgical Applications

The Surgical Pathway

Medical / Surgical Device and Systems Development

Medical Technologies and Interaction Design

Extended Reality

3D / 4D Printing

Robotic Cell Integration

The research group seeks to address the changing needs of healthcare research, including:

  • Autonomous robotics applications.
  • Medical device development and additive manufacturing processes.
  • Health management and rehabilitation - including mobile applications.
  • Biomaterials - including dental, cardiovascular, ophthalmics and orthopaedics.
  • Emergency medical care, systems and procedures.

The MEDRG research group also has separate research interests linked to improvements in process control using the latest technologies, this research is currently in collaboration with a global food and drinks company.

The MEDRG research group lead innovative research linked to the combined use of Computer Aided Design (CAD), printing systems and layer manufacturing techniques to produce medical devices which have a uniform composition.

We are looking to generate research income through the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), NIHR i4i fund, EPSRC, MRC, Innovate U.K. and Welcome Trust.

Core services we offer include:

  • Innovative device development for the medical / surgical industry.
  • Medical / surgical robotics / corobotics.
  • Production Process robotic systems.
  • Rapid prototyping with SLA and FDM 3D printing standard, engineering, ceramic, medical and dental material capabilities.
  • Multi-material 3D / 4D printing.
  • Translation of medical technology for product manufacture.
  • Fundamental and applied research on novel medical technologies.
  • Use of Extended Reality Technologies for medical applications.
  • Flexible electronics printing.
  • Brain-computer interfaces (BCI).
  • Hardware Interface Design and Development.
  • User Interface and User Experience Design and Development, based on co-design principles.
  • Materialise Mimics 3D image processing software for modelling human anatomy.


  • UR5 CoRobots
  • UR10 CoRobot
  • Omron LD CT 130 Autonomous Intelligent Vehicle (AIV)
  • Omron LD250 AIV
  • Omron Fleet Management System

Manufacturing and Prototyping

  • Formlabs Form 2, with access to Standard, Engineering, Ceramic and Dentistry Materials
  • Formlabs Form 3B+ with access to Biocompatible Medical Grade resin
  • Form Wash and Cure Stations
  • Prusa i3 MK3 MMU Multi Material 3D Printer
  • Silicone Casting System
  • Travin TP Monster Desktop Injection Moulding Machine
  • Dimatix Fujifilm Electronics Printer
  • HPE Server Computers (Access only)
  • Testing and verification

Testing and Verification

  • Sauter Force Measurement Devices & Motorised test stand for laboratory applications (Fully Calibrated)
  • OS-300-2 Durometer & Test Stand for Shore “A” (Fully Calibrated)
  • Access to testing equipment with the Engineering Building

Extended Reality - Headsets and Equipment

  • Augmented Reality Headsets including: Vuzix Blade (AR) Smart Glasses, Microsoft HoloLens 1 & 2
  • VR Headsets Including: Oculus Rifts DK2 and CV1, HTC VIVE Pro, Lenovo Explorer, FOVE VR Eye Tracking Headset
  • Mixed Reality Headset Assortment of Mobile VR Headsets
  • Industrial Software: SolidWorks, Adobe Suite, Ansys, AutoDesk Suite, 3Ds Max, Unity, Visual Components, Keyshot
    Cyberith Virtualizer Virtual Reality Treadmill
  • HP Sprout 3D table- top Scanner

Medical Facilities

  • Eschmann T20 m+ Operating Theatre Table
  • Simbodies – Adult Male
  • Working with and supporting the Medical Technology Innovation Facility (MTIF) - Including the Steris Integrated Theatre Suite
  • Working with the Health and Allied Professions Centre - Including VR suite, Sim Bodies and Wards

Selected Partners and Collaborators

The number of partners addresses NTU’s research strategy by focusing research and is external facing, with the potential to provide high quality outputs. The PhD experience is significantly enhanced by providing real world, high impact research projects to potential students.

  • Dr Moslem Abdelghafar, Senior Clinical fellow in cardiothoracic surgery, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust.
  • Dr James Armstrong, Consultant Paediatric Anaesthetist - Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust.
  • Prof Chris Bainbridge, Consultant, Pulvertaft Hand Surgery Centre, University Hospitals Derby & Burton NHS Foundation Trust.
  • Mr Antony Bateman Consultant Trauma, Orthopaedic and Spine Surgeon - University Hospitals Derby & Burton NHS Foundation Trust.
  • Dr Elizabeth Bateman, Emergency Department Consultant, University Hospitals Derby & Burton NHS Foundation Trust.
  • Dr Nigel Bedforth, Consultant Anaesthetist and Honorary Associate Professor – Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust.
  • Dr Martin Beed, Consultant (AICU), Nottingham University Hospitals NUH Trust.
  • Professor Bronek Boszczyk, (Visiting Professor), Chefarzt Wirbelsäulenchirurgie, Orthopädische Kinderklinik Aschau.
  • Dr Bill Byrom, Vice President of Product Strategy and Innovation - Signant Health.
  • Dr David Hewson, Consultant Anaesthetist and Honorary Assistant Professor – Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust.
  • Dr Shahnaz Jamil-Copley, Consultant cardiologist, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust.
  • Dr Prashant Jindal - Assistant Professor, UIET, (Panjab University).
  • Mr Charles Nduka, Consultant Plastic, Reconstructive and Cosmetic surgeon - QVH, West Sussex.
  • Mr Rory O Connor, Registrar in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust.
  • John Pacey-Lowrie, Consultant Ocularist - Jersey Ocular Prosthetics.
  • Dr Ira Pande, Consultant Rheumatologist, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust.
  • Mr Nasir Quraishi, (Honorary Professor), Consultant spinal surgeon - Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust.
  • Mr Saqib Qureshi, Trust Grade SPR in Thoracic Surgery - Trent Cardiac Centre, Nottingham.
  • Dr Anna Selby, Research and Postgraduate Manager, Pulvertaft Hand Centre Centre, University Hospitals Derby & Burton NHS Foundation Trust.
  • Clinical Professor Michael Vloeberghs, Consultant Neurosurgeon - Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust.
  • Mr Jason Watson, Consultant Maxillofacial Prosthetist at Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust.

Group Projects

Steerable Bougie

This project focuses on the development of a novel “Steerable Bougie” that will improve the speed and safety of endotracheal intubation in anaesthesia and critical care.

Mixed Reality in Surgery

A project exploring how AR could be used in surgical visualisation and planning. Allowing surgeons to preview the patient’s anatomy prior to surgery for procedure planning and creating guides for insert implants.

Breakaway Chest Drain

A breakaway chest drain device designed reduce the accidental displacement of chest drains, reduce discomfort and time spent in hospital and reducing cost to the NHS.


A prototype Co-robotic spinal surgery system with a continuous contact datum to perform surgery with pinpoint accuracy. Using two robots, one using a surgical drill and the other robot providing a live datum point, the system will drill accurately based on any movement of the patient.

Autonomous Robotic Mobile System (ARMS)

Surgical instrument delivery and retrieval, from operating theatre suites using Autonomous Mobile Robots (AMRs)

Patient Maintained Propofol Sedation

The project improves patient sedation in awake surgery through self- administered modification of infusion with anaesthetist supervision.

Closed Loop Monitoring System for use in Surgery

Design of a closed loop system that will monitor and alleviate pressure injuries in real time during the intra-operative period that allows clinicians to see the development of pressure and prevent localised damage to the skin and/ or underlying tissue.

Menstrual Blood Donation for Cell Therapy

This project focuses on developing a suitable method of collecting donated menstrual blood, from which stem cells can be extracted and used in treatment of chronic non-communicable and degenerative diseases.

Other group projects

PepsiCo Europe & Global - AIV Integration Project - Visual Components and RoboDK software
Research and development of research outputs related to the factory implementation of Automated Guided Vehicles. Components and RoboDK software is being used for simulation and offline programming of industrial robots.

Wearable Headsets in Spinal Surgery - Vuzix: Augmented Reality (AR) Smart Glasses
This project focuses on improving the efficiency of the Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy neurosurgical procedure through the use of wearable headsets.

Responsive Ocular Prosthetics
A research project into the design and development of an adaptive iris ocular implant and focus on the utilisation of smart materials to provide a responsive ocular prosthetic.

EMOTI (Mobile Emotion Tracking Depression Project)
Emotion tracking mobile platform for the monitoring and measurement of depression through the assessment of emotion change and engagement.

Leveraging Sensor-Based Data with Children in Clinic: Domain Capability and Limitation for a Diagnostic Internet of Medical Things
The purpose of this project is to explore and develop an IoMT toy with the intended use for use in child development clinics, to capture child interaction with objects for diagnostic purposes.

Objective Measurement of Tremor Symptom In Parkinson’s Disease Remotely And Within Clinic
This project focuses on the development of potential cost-effective, reliable, responsiveness and valid solutions to the measurement of tremor that could be used by a patient, with or without the help of a caregiver.

Group research output

  • A precision greater than humanly possible, European Hospital, Vol 20, 5:19, November 2019.
  • Scientists develop a ground-breaking robot 'which could revolutionise spinal surgery' because it can drill holes with 0.1mm accuracy - better than EVER recorded for humans, Daily Mail Online, 15 January 2019.
  • These face-reading glasses track physical and mental health, Wired Magazine UK, 13 December 2019.
  • Patients undergoing surgery could soon choose how sleepy they want to be at the touch of a button, Daily Mail Online, 22 February 2018
  • Philip Breedon: Co-robotics, telerobotics and the innovative Scolibot system, Spinal News International, 21 July 2017.
  • Using VR therapy to help treat a severe stutter, BBC Click, 08 June 2017
  • Smart specs to treat facial palsy, monitor mood and steer wheelchairs, MedicalXpress, October 14, 2016.
  • Gaming tech improving at-home stroke rehab, Raconteur, 6 April 2016.
  • Latest research into 3D-printed bone implants could mean breakthrough for those living with fracture injuries, Mirror Online, 2 February 2016
  • Scientists 3D-print bone structure to help tissue regenerate, United Press International, 8 February 2016.
  • NASA helps launch new international health technology conference, Design Products and Applications, 22 January 2014.
  • Steerable device helps insertion of emergency breathing tube, Medical Technology Business Europe, 19 December 2014.
  • Small firms and 3D printing ready to revolutionise production, The Express, 23 October 2013.
  • 3D-printed pump keeps damaged hearts beating in time, The New Scientist, 11 September 2013.
  • New technology could help stroke victims, Nottingham Evening Post, 28 June 2011.
  • Animatronic head provides test-bed for smart materials, The Engineer, 5 July 2011.
  • Making Headway for Stroke Victims, The Weekly News, 30 July 2011, p.28.
  • Animatronic Head as developmental aid to help stroke victims, 7 July 2011, Live broadcast, BBC Radio Nottingham.
  • Smart design put in the spotlight, Medical Plastic News - Story of the week, 7 November 2011.
  • Igniting European biomaterials collaboration, Medical Technology Business Europe, 2012 1 August 2012.
  • From Robot Snakes to Surgical Implants, Design for Health TEDx, October 2010.

  1. BREEDON, P., HIGGINSON, M., SIENA, F.L. and VLOEBERGHS, M.H.J., 2022. The individual survival unit: transporting patients in a protective and stable environment in disaster scenarios – a case study. In: B. MALHEIRO and P. FUENTES-DURÁ, eds., Handbook of research on improving engineering education with the European Project Semester. IGI Global, pp. 262-280. ISBN 9781668423097
  2. ZAKERI, Z., OMURTAG, A., BREEDON, P., HILLIARD, G. and KHALID, A., 2021. Studying mental stress factor in occupational safety in the context of the smart factory. In: B. CASTANIER, M. CEPIN, D. BIGAUD and C. BERENGUER, eds., Proceedings of the 31st European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2021). Singapore: Research Publishing, pp. 92-99. ISBN 9789811820168
  3. Nicholls, M. 2019. A precision greater than humanly possible. European Hospital, [online] 28 (5/19), p.11. Available at: [Accessed 1 Nov. 2019].
  4. Breedon, P., Papastavrou, M. and Fairhurst, D. 2018. Low-Temperature Deposition Modeling of ß-TCP Scaffolds with Controlled Bimodal Porosity. In: K. Chawla, ed., Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering, 1st ed. [online] Springer Nature (in press). Available on .
  5. Breedon, P., Logan, P., Pearce, D., Edmans, J., Childs, B. and O'Brien, R., 2017. Face to face: an interactive facial exercise system for stroke patients with facial weakness. In: W. POWELL, A. RIZZO, P.M. SHARKEY and J. MERRICK, eds., Rehabilitation: innovations and challenges in the use of virtual reality technologies. Disability studies . New York: Nova Science, pp. 73-89. ISBN 9781536120806
  6. Breedon, P., Byrom, B., Siena, L. and Muehlhausen, W., 2016. Enhancing the Measurement of Clinical Outcomes Using Microsoft Kinect. In: Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Interactive Technologies and Games (iTAG 2016), Nottingham, 26-27 October 2016. Los Alamitos, CA: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, pp. 61-69. ISBN 9781509037384
  7. Breedon, P., Logan, P., Pearce, D., Edmans, J., Childs, B. and O'Brien, R., 2016. Face to face: an interactive facial exercise system for stroke patients with facial weakness. In: P. SHARKEY and A.S. RIZZO, eds., Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies (ICDVRAT 2016), Los Angeles, California, USA, 20-22 September 2016. Reading: University of Reading, pp. 233-240. ISBN 9780704915473
  8. King, D. and Breedon, P., 2014. Cooperative Object Recognition: Behaviours of an Artificially Evolved Swarm. In: M. DORIGO, M. BIRATTARI, S. GARNIER, H. HAMANN, M. MONTES DE Oca, C. Solnon and T. Stützle, eds., Swarm Intelligence: 9th International Conference, ANTS 2014, Brussels, Belgium, September 10-12, 2014. Proceedings. Lecture notes in computer science (8667). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International, pp. 214-221. ISBN 9783319099514
  9. Glazzard, M. and Breedon, P., 2013. Exploring 3D-printed structures through textile design. In: J. WALLACE, J. YEE and A. DURRANT, eds., Praxis + Poetics: Research Through Design 2013 Conference Proceedings. The Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art, Newcastle upon Tyne and Gateshead, 3-5 September 2013. Newcastle upon Tyne: Northumbria University, pp. 51-54. ISBN 9780954958794
  10. Breedon P. J., (Ed), 2012, Smart Design: First International Conference, Springer
  11. Breedon, P.J., Sivayoganathan, K., Balendran, V. and Al-Dabass, D., 2002. Multi axis fuzzy control and performance analysis for an industrial robot. In: 2002-WCCI, IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE), 12 May 2002. pp. 500-505. ISBN 0780372808

Invited Guest Lectures (within last 5 years)

  • Breedon, P., 2020. Additive Manufacturing Technologies & Functionally Graded Materials for Applications in Medical Device Design. In: International Conference on aspects of materials science and Engineering, Punjab University, 29 May 2020.
  • Breedon, P., 2019. The development of Robotic Assisted Surgery for Spines. In: The National Orthopaedic Alliance (NOA), 29 November 2019.
  • Breedon, P., 2019. Additive manufacturing for medical applications. In: NSpine- International Spine conference, Institute of Engineering Designers, London, 01 – 03 July 2019.
  • Breedon, P., 2019. Spinal robotics and Augmented reality. In: NSpine- International Spine conference, Institute of Engineering Designers, London, 01 – 03 July 2019.
  • Breedon, P., 2018. New Technologies for Medical Research. In: Materials and Engineering Research Institute (MERI), Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, 5 February 2018.

Conferences (within last 5 years)

  • Breedon, P., 2020. Medilink Midlands Special Interest Group meeting – Medical Technologies and systems. Digital Health: Current Applications and Future Trends for Mental Healthcare, [Online], 16 May 2020.
  • Breedon, P., 2020. Invited keynote lecture - International Conference on aspects of materials science and Engineering, Punjab University, [Online], 29 May 2020.
  • Breedon, P., 2019. Invited keynote lecture – National Orthopaedic Alliance, Surgical robotics. Birmingham Conference and Events Centre, Hill Street, Birmingham, 29 November 2019.
  • Breedon, P., 2019. Medilink EM Special Interest Group meeting, Medical Technologies and systems – Digital Health Care and Artificial Intelligence, BioCity, Nottingham, 26 November 2019.
  • Siena, F.L. , Breedon, P. , Armstrong, J., Watts, P. , Inkpin, K. and Norris, A., 2018. Mechanical performance assessment system for endotracheal tube introducers using motion detection and object tracking. In: IADIS International Conference: Computer Graphics, Visualization, Computer Vision and Image Processing 2018, Madrid, Spain, 18-20 July 2018.
  • Sprinks, J., Worcester, F., Breedon, P., Hewson, D. and Bedforth, N., 2018. Patient-maintained propofol sedation: the anaesthetists' point of view. In: IADIS International Conference Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction 2018, Madrid, Spain, July 2018.
  • Hewson, D., Beforth, N., Sprinks, J., Breedon, P. and Worcester, F., 2018. Patient-maintained propofol sedation for orthopaedic surgery: patient variability in system use. In: International Conference on Ergonomics & Human Factors (CIEHF), Birmingham, 23-25 April 2018.

Peer Reviewed Journal Publications (within last 5 years)

  • JINDAL, P., SHARMA, P., KUNDU, M., SINGH, S., KUMAR SHUKLA, D., JIT PAWAR, V., WEI, Y. and BREEDON, P., 2022. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of graphene nanoplatelets for the cooling of a multiple tier Li-ion battery pack. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 31: 101282.
  • JINDAL, P., CHAITANYA, , SHIVA, S., BHARADWAJA, S., RATTRA, S., PAREEK, D., GUPTA, V., BREEDON, P., REINWALD, Y. and JUNEJA, M., 2022. Optimizing cranial implant and fixture design using different materials in cranioplasty. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications. ISSN 1464-4207
  • JINDAL, P., BHARADWAJA, S.S.S., RATTRA, S., PAREEK, D., GUPTA, V., BREEDON, P., REINWALD, Y. and JUNEJA, M., 2022. Optimizing cranial implant and fixture design using different materials in cranioplasty. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications. ISSN 1464-4207
  • JONES, G., SIENA, F.L., WATKINS, M. and BREEDON, P., 2021. Development of a PPE visor for female healthcare workers. Journal of Health Design, 6 (3), pp. 440-447. ISSN 2206-785X
  • MANLEY, H., HUNT, J.A., SANTOS, L. and BREEDON, P., 2021. Comparison between menstrual cups: first step to categorization and improved safety. Women's Health, 17. ISSN 1745-5057
  • ALMAHADIN, G., LOTFI, A., CARTHY, M.M. and BREEDON, P., 2021. Enhanced Parkinson's disease tremor severity classification by combining signal processing with resampling techniques. SN Computer Science, 3 (1): 63. ISSN 2661-8907
  • ALMAHADIN, G., LOTFI, A., MCCARTHY, M. and BREEDON, P., 2021. Task-oriented intelligent solution to measure Parkinson’s disease tremor severity. Journal of Healthcare Engineering, 2021: 9624386. ISSN 2040-2295
  • WALIA, K., KHAN, A. and BREEDON, P., 2021. Polymer-based additive manufacturing: process optimisation for low-cost industrial robotics manufacture. Polymers, 13 (16): 2809. ISSN 2073-4360
  • MANLEY, H., HUNT, J.A., SANTOS, L. and BREEDON, P., 2021. Comparison between menstrual cups: first step to categorisation and improved safety. Women’s Health, 17. ISSN 1745-5057
  • JINDAL, P., WORCESTER, F., SIENA, F.L., FORBES, C., JUNEJA, M. and BREEDON, P., 2020. Mechanical behaviour of 3D printed vs thermoformed clear dental aligner materials under non-linear compressive loading using FEM. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 112: 104045. ISSN 1751-6161
  • MAHADIN, G., LOTFI, A., ZYSK, E., SIENA, F.L., CARTHY, M.M. and BREEDON, P., 2020. Parkinson's disease: current assessment methods and wearable devices for evaluation of movement disorder motor symptoms - a patient and healthcare professional perspective. BMC Neurology, 20 (1): 419.
  • SIENA, F.L., VERNON, M., WATTS, P., BYROM, B., CRUNDALL, D. and BREEDON, P., 2020. Proof-of-concept study: a mobile application to derive clinical outcome measures from expression and speech for mental health status evaluation. Journal of Medical Systems, 44 (12): 209. ISSN 0148-5598
  • Watts, P., Breedon, P., Nduka, C., Neville, C., Venables, V. And Clarke, S., 2020. Cloud computing mobile application for remote monitoring of Bell's palsy. Journal of Medical Systems, 44 (9): 149. ISSN 0148-5598
  • Sizer, N.D., Siena, F.L., Boszczyk, B. And Breedon, P., 2020. Monitoring and alleviating the effects of pressure related injuries for spinal surgery–a need for improvement? The Journal of Health Design, 5 (2), pp. 280-292. ISSN 2206-785X
  • Jindal, P., Worcester, F., Siena, F.L., Forbes, C., Juneja, M. And Breedon, P., 2020. Mechanical behaviour of 3D printed vs thermoformed clear dental aligner materials under non-linear compressive loading using FEM. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials: 104045. ISSN 1751-6161
  • Jindal, P., Juneja, M., Bajaj, D., Siena, F.L. And Breedon, P., 2020. Effects of post-curing conditions on mechanical properties of 3D printed clear dental aligners. Rapid Prototyping Journal. ISSN 1355-2546
  • Siena, F., Vernon, M., Watts, P., Crundall, D., Byrom, B., Mowlem, F. And Breedon, P., 2020. PMH6 deriving clinical outcome measures from expression and speech: results of a proof of concept study. Value in Health, 23 (Supp 1), S200-S201. ISSN 1098-3015
  • Byrom, B., Breedon, P., Tulkki-Wilke, R. And Platko, J., 2020. Meaningful change: defining the interpretability of changes in endpoints derived from interactive and mHealth technologies in healthcare and clinical research. Journal of Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies Engineering, 7. ISSN 2055-6683
  • Jindal, P., Juneja, M., Siena, F.L., Bajaj, D. And Breedon, P., 2019. Mechanical and geometric properties of thermoformed and 3D printed clear dental aligners. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 156 (5), pp. 694-701. ISSN 0889-5406
  • Manley, H., Sprinks, J. And Breedon, P., 2019. Menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells: women's attitudes, willingness, and barriers to donation of menstrual blood. Journal of Women's Health. ISSN 1540-9996
  • Sprinks, J., Worcester, F., Breedon, P., Watts, P., Hewson, D. And Bedforth, N., 2019. A prototype patient-maintained propofol sedation system using target controlled infusion for primary lower-limb arthroplasty. Journal of Medical Systems, 43 (8): 247. ISSN 0148-5598
  • Hewson, D.W., Worcester, F., Sprinks, J., Smith, M.D., Buchanan, H., Breedon, P., Hardman, J.G. And Bedforth, N.M., 2019. Anaesthetist-controlled versus patient-maintained effect-site targeted propofol sedation during elective primary lower-limb arthroplasty performed under spinal anaesthesia (ACCEPTS): study protocol for a parallel-group randomised comparison trial. Trials, 20: 129. ISSN 1745-6215
  • Jindal, P., Worcester, F., Gupta, A. and Breedon, P. , 2019. Efficiency of nanoparticle reinforcement using finite element analysis of titanium alloy mandible plate. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine. ISSN 0954-4119
  • Jindal, P., Worcester, F., Walia, K., Gupta, A. and Breedon, P. , 2019. Finite element analysis of titanium alloy-graphene based mandible plate. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. ISSN 1025-5842
  • Siena, F.L. , Breedon, P. , Armstrong, J., Inkpin, K., Norris, A. and Watts, P. , 2018. Performance analysis system for endotracheal tube introducers: standardising for success. Journal of Health Design, 3 (3), pp. 129-134. ISSN 2206-785X
  • Siena, F.L., Byrom, B., Watts, P. and Breedon, P., 2018. Utilising the Intel RealSense camera for measuring health outcomes in clinical research. Journal of Medical Systems, 42 (3): 53. ISSN 0148-5598