Skip to content


Critical Criminology and Social Justice Research Group

Unit(s) of assessment: Social Work and Social Policy

Research theme: Safety and Security of Citizens and Society

School: School of Social Sciences


Informed by a dynamic and thriving research environment, our scholarship looks to critically interrogate conventional understandings of crime, deviance, and the social, economic and political influences upon processes of criminalisation and victimisation. The group’s research and activities span a diverse range of areas including gender, race and class inequalities; social exclusion and marginalisation; secondary victimisation & co-victims; technology-enhanced abuse; active citizenship and identity; prison education; social harm and social justice; policing and regulation; and crimes against the environment.

Our group are trained in methodological innovation, with a particular strength in qualitative mixed-methods, participatory action research, visual methods, biography, life-story and narrative research, and ethnography.

The group is associated with Centre for Crime, Offending, Prevention and Engagement (COPE) and work in collaboration with other research groups within the School of Social Sciences.

Social Media

Follow us on Twitter and YouTube for all of the latest updates and news.

Current Projects

QR Funded project entitled ‘Working women Impacted by COVID-19 pandemic.’ The project examines the changes in the workplace due to the COVID-19 pandemic and how have these changes impacted working women. Currently the project is in the pilot phase. This project is a collaboration between Dr Hind Elhinnawy (PI), Dr Silvia Gomes and Dr Morag Kennedy. For the next phase of this project, we are seeking interdisciplinary collaborators, i.e. psychology, sociology, or education. For more information, please email Dr Hind Elhinnawy.

Working Papers

Our new working papers series is now live, click here for more.

Areas of Research

  • Gender, race and class inequalities
  • Narrative and cultural criminology
  • Social Exclusion and marginalisation
  • Secondary victimisation & co-victims
  • Technology-enhanced abuse
  • Active citizenship and identity
  • Phenomenological criminology and Labelling Theories
  • Prison Education and Social Justice
  • Green Criminology
  • Policing and regulation


Gender, Race and Class Inequalities

Brown, G., Brady, G. and Letherby, G., 2011. Young mothers’ experiences of power, control and violence within intimate and familial relationships. Child Care in Practice, 17 (4), pp. 359-374. ISSN 1357-5279

Bywaters, P., Kwahli, J., Brady, G., SParks, T. and Bos, E., 2017. Out of sight, out of mind: ethnic inequalities in child protection and out-of-home care intervention rates. British Journal of Social Work, 47 (7), pp. 1884-1902. ISSN 0045-3102

Crowther-Dowey, C. and Silvestri, M., 2017. The gendering of violent crime: towards a human rights approach. British Journal of Community Justice, 14 (3). ISSN 1475-0279

Cohen, C., 2014. Male rape is a feminist issue: feminism, governmentality and male rape. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780230223967

De Motte, C. and Mutale, G., 2019. How the construction of women in discourse explains society’s challenge in accepting females commit sexual offences against children. Journal of Criminal Psychology, 9 (4), pp. 155-165. ISSN 2009-3829

Elhinnawy, H., 2021. ‘Mothers of Intervention: The Politics of Motherhood in the Battle Against ISIS.’ Reading, ACI, pp. 97 - 103. Available at or

Elhinnawy, H. 2019. Contested Voices: Secular Muslim Women in the Age of ISIS. PhD Thesis. University of Kent. Available at

Elhinnawy, H., 2012. Rethinking Gender in the New Muslim Public Sphere: New Egyptian Religious Satellite Television in Relation to Young Female Viewers. Saarbrücken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.

Newton, A., Mackay, J., Ikhile, D. and Wallace, L., 2020. Domestic abuse perpetrator interventions: extended rapid evidence review. Nottingham: The Nottingham City and Nottinghamshire Violence Reduction Unit (NNVU); The Nottinghamshire Office of the Police and Crime Commissioner (OPCC), p. 71.

Silvestri, M. and Crowther-Dowey, C., 2008. Gender and crime. Sage. ISBN 9780000000000

Wright, E.J., 2019. On white-collar boxing and social class. The Sociological Review. ISSN 0038-0261


WRIGHT, E.J., 2020. Fast-track fisticuffs? An ethnographic exploration of time and white-collar boxing. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 55 (4), pp. 437-452. ISSN 1012-6902

Social Exclusion, Marginalisation and Exploitation

Bywaters, P., Brady, G., Bunting, L., Daniel, B., Davidson, G., Elliot, M., Featherstone, B., Hooper, J., Jones, C., Kwhali, J., Mason, W., McCartan, C., McGhee, J., Mirza, N., Morris, K., Scourfield, J., Shapira, M., Slater, T., Sparks, T., Steils, N. and Webb, C., 2020. The Child Welfare Inequalities Project: final report. London: Nuffield Foundation.

Bywaters, P., Brady, G., Bunting, L., Daniel, B., Featherstone, B., Jones, C., Morris, K., Scourfield, J., Sparks, T. and Webb, C., 2018. Inequalities in English child protection practice under austerity: a universal challenge? Child and Family Social Work, 23 (1), pp. 53-61. ISSN 1356-7500

Bywaters, P., Scourfield, J., Webb, C., Morris, K., Featherstone, B., Brady, G., Jones, C. and Sparks, T., 2019. Paradoxical evidence on ethnic inequities in child welfare: towards a research agenda. Children and Youth Services Review, 96, pp. 145-154. ISSN 0190-7409

Featherstone, B., Morris, K., Daniel, B., Bywater, P., Brady, G., Bunting, L., Mason, W. and Mirza, N., 2019. Poverty, inequality, child abuse and neglect: changing the conversation across the UK in child protection? Children and Youth Services Review, 97, pp. 127-133. ISSN 0190-7409

Harding, R. and Hamilton, P., 2009. Working girls: abuse or choice in street-level sex work? A study of homeless women in Nottingham. British Journal of Social Work, 39 (6), pp. 1118-1137. ISSN 1468-263X

Kwalhi, J., Martin, L., Brady, G. and Brown, S.J., 2016. Child sexual abuse and exploitation: knowledge, confidence and training within a contemporary UK social work practice and policy context. British Journal of Social Work, 46 (8), pp. 2208-2226. ISSN 0045-3102

Mahoney, I., 2019. Considering the legitimacy of homeless hostels as sites of discipline and regulation. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 39 (3/4), pp. 250-263. ISSN 0144-333X

Mahoney, I. and Kearon, T., 2018. Formulating the postindustrial self: the role of petty crime among unemployed, working-class men in Stoke-on-Trent. In: C. Walker and S. Roberts, eds., Masculinity, labour, and neoliberalism. Global masculinities . Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 77-99. ISBN 9783319631714

Morris, K., Mason, W., Bywaters, P., Featherstone, B., Daniel, B., Brady, G., Bunting, L., Hooper, J., Mirza, N., Scourfield, J. and Webb, C., 2018. Social work, poverty, and child welfare interventions. Child and Family Social Work, 23 (3), pp. 364-372. ISSN 1356-7500

Secondary Victimisation & Co-victims

Brady, G. and Lowe, P., 2020. 'Go on, go on, go on': sexual consent, child sexual exploitation and cups of tea. Children and Society, 34 (1), pp. 78-92. ISSN 0951-0605

Cohen, C., 2019. Problematizing 'pro-feminist' depictions of female on male rape: American Horror Story's 'Rape of the Monsignor'. Crime, Media, Culture: an International Journal. ISSN 1741-6590

Cohen, C., 2018. A decade after Lynndie: non-ideal victims of non-ideal offenders – doubly anomalised, doubly invisibilised. In: M. DUGGAN, ed., Revisiting the 'ideal victim': developments in critical victimology. Bristol: Policy Press, pp. 279-296. ISBN 9781447338765

Crowther-Dowey, C., Gillespie, T. and Hopkins, K., 2016. Building healthy relationships for young people and the prevention of domestic abuse. In: S. Hilder and V. Bettinson, eds., Domestic violence: interdisciplinary perspectives on protection, prevention and intervention. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 155-180. ISBN 9781137524515

Franklin, A., Brady, G. and Bradley, L., 2020. The medicalisation of disabled children and young people in child sexual abuse: impacts on prevention, identification, response and recovery in the United Kingdom. Global Studies of Childhood, 10 (1), pp. 64-77. ISSN 2043-6106

Franklin, A., Brown, S. and Brady, G., 2018. The use of tools and checklists to assess the risk of child sexual exploitation: lessons from UK practice. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 27 (8), pp. 978-997. ISSN 1053-8712

Hamilton, P. and Trickett, L., 2014. Disability hostility, harassment and violence in the UK: a 'motiveless' and 'senseless' crime? In: N. HALL, A. CORB, P. GIANNASI and J.G.D. GRIEVE, eds., The Routledge international handbook on hate crime. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 207-226. ISBN 9780415818902

Ward, J., De Motte, C. and Bailey, D., 2013. Service user involvement in the evaluation of psycho-social intervention for self-harm: a systematic literature review. Journal of Research in Nursing, 18 (2), pp. 114-130. ISSN 1744-9871

Technology-enhanced Abuse & Active Citizenship and Identity

Technology-enhanced abuse

Boulton, M.J., Boutlon, L., Camerone, E., Down, J., Hughes, J., Kirkbride, C., Kirkham, R., Macaulay, P.J.R. and Sanders, J., 2016. Enhancing primary school children's knowledge of online safety and risks with the CATZ cooperative cross-age teaching intervention: results from a pilot study. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 19 (10), pp. 609-614. ISSN 2152-2715

Active citizenship and identity

Mahoney, I. and Kearon, T., 2018. Social quality and Brexit in Stoke-on-Trent, England. International Journal of Social Quality, 8 (1), pp. 1-20. ISSN 1757-0344

Prison Studies & Prison Education

Brown, G., Bos, L. and Brady, G., 2020. Building health and wellbeing in prison: learning from the master gardener programme in a Midlands prison. In: M. Maycock, R. Meek and J. Woodall, eds., Issues and innovations in prison health research: methods, issues, innovations. Palgrave Studies in Prison Penology . Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 139-165. ISBN 9783030464004

Mahoney, I. and Chowdhury, R., 2021. Criminal justice and inequality: what can be done to reduce inequality? Nottingham: Nottingham Trent University.

Crewe, H., 2020. When the pendulum is stuck! – Invisible agonists and babies in prison. Cambridge: Cambridge Open Engage.

Crewe, H., 2020. Neo-liberal governmentality and babies in prison. Cambridge: Cambridge Open Engage.

Crewe, H., 2020. Putting babies first: supportive choices for mother and baby units. Cambridge: Cambridge Open Engage.

De Motte, C., Bailey, D., Hunter, M. and Bennett, A.L., 2017. What is the pattern of self-harm and prison rule-breaking behaviour in personality disordered offenders in a high secure prison? Journal of Criminal Psychology, 7 (4), pp. 287-301. ISSN 2009-3829

GRIFFITHS, L., BAILEY, D. and SLADE, K., 2020. Exploring the listener scheme in a women's prison: the importance of a gendered approach to peer support for women who self-harm in custody. Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, 15 (6), pp. 347-360. ISSN 1755-6228

GRIFFITHS, L., BAILEY, D. and SLADE, K., 2019. Professional and peer support preferences for women who self-harm in custody. Journal of Criminal Psychology, 9 (3), pp. 109-121. ISSN 2009-3829

Griffiths, L., 2017. Prison listeners and self-harm: the development of a multi-disciplinary gendered approach for women in custody. PhD, Nottingham Trent University.

GRIFFITHS, L. and BAILEY, D., 2015. Learning from peer support schemes – can prison listeners support offenders who self-injure in custody? International Journal of Prisoner Health, 11 (3), pp. 157-168. ISSN 1744-9200

Moore, R. and Hamilton, P., 2016. 'Silo mentalities' and their impact on service delivery in prison-community transitions: a case study of resettlement provision at a male open prison. The Howard Journal of Crime and Justice, 55 (1-2), pp. 111-130. ISSN 2059-1098

De Motte, C., 2015. Understanding older male prisoners' satisfaction with quality of life and wellbeing. PhD, Nottingham Trent University.

De Motte, C., Bailey, D. and Ward, J., 2012. How does prison visiting affect female offenders' mental health? Implications for education and development. The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, 7 (4), pp. 170-179. ISSN 1755-6228

Social Harm and Social Justice

Kellezi, B., Wakefield, J., BOWE, M., bridger, K. and Teague, K., 2021. Adapting social prescribing to meet the needs of migrant populations: challenges and solutions to service access and effectiveness. Community Psychology in Global Perspective. ISSN 2421-2113 (Forthcoming)

Garius, L., Ward, B., Teague, K. and Tseloni, A., 2020. Evaluating harm-reduction initiatives in a night-time economy and music festival context. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice. ISSN 0192-4036

Long, M., 2020. The familiar stranger of mental health. Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice. ISSN 1755-6228

Policing and Regulation

Long, M. and Hopkins-Burke, R., 2015. Vandalism and anti-social behaviour. Basingstoke: Palgrave. ISBN 9780230580855

Maguire, K., Hodson, P., Kamoche, K., Long, M. and Love, K., 2012. 'We've stood on that precipice': police, organisation, and the anomalous Child Protection Unit. Social Work and Social Sciences Review, 16 (1), pp. 19-33. ISSN 0953-5225

Crowther-Dowey, C., 2007. The police and drugs. In: M. Simpson, T. Shildrick and R. Macdonald, eds., Drugs in Britain: supply, consumption and control. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 108-124. ISBN 9.7814E+12

Senior, P., Crowther-Dowey, C. and Long, M., 2007. Understanding modernisation in criminal justice. Open University Press. ISBN 9780000000000

Crowther-Dowey, C., 2005. The police and community justice. British Journal of Community Justice, 3 (3), pp. 31-43. ISSN 1475-0279

Environmental Harms and Crimes

Research Methods & Educational Texts

Alberro, H., 2019. Methodological considerations for the special-risk researcher: a research note. Methodological Innovations, 12 (1). ISSN 2059-7991

Brady, G. and Brown, G., 2013. Rewarding but let's talk about the challenges: using arts based methods in research with young mothers. Methodological Innovations Online, 8 (1), pp. 99-112. ISSN 1748-0612

Brady, G., Bywaters, P., Knypsel, M., Letherby, G. and Steventon, G., 2007. Outcomes. In: G. Letherby and P. Bywaters, eds., Extending social research: application, implementation and publication. Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp. 123-144. ISBN 9780335215294

Brown, G. and Brady, G., 2020. Collaborative research: working together to deliver land-based prison initiatives. Methodological Innovations, 13 (2). ISSN 2059-7991

Brady, G. and Franklin, A., 2019. Challenging dominant notions of participation and protection through a co-led disabled young researcher study. Journal of Children's Services, 14 (3), pp. 174-185. ISSN 1746-6660

Letherby, G., Brady, G. and Brown, G., 2007. Working with the community: research and action. In: C.J. Clay, M. Madden and L. Potts, eds., Towards understanding community: people and places. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 123-136. ISBN 9780230542648

Mahoney, I. and Kearon, T. (2018) ‘(De)constructing ethical research narratives in criminological research’, Research Ethics, 14(2), pp. 1–5. doi: 10.1177/1747016117719050.

Mason, W., Morris, K., Webb, C., Daniels, B., Featherstone, B., Bywaters, P., Mirza, N., Hooper, J., Brady, G., Bunting, L. and Scourfield, J., 2020. Toward full integration of quantitative and qualitative methods in case study research: insights from investigating child welfare inequalities. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 14 (2), pp. 164-183. ISSN 1558-6898

Mutale, G.J., De Motte, C. and Bailey, D., 2020. Using a mixed methods approach to examine the effectiveness of inpatient rehabilitation services following a programme of planned bed closures. Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Mental Health. ISSN 2198-9834

Wright, E.J., 2020. Coming to terms with the missing pieces: toilet paper and ethnography in the neoliberal university. Emotion, Space and Society, 35: 100689. ISSN 1755-4586

Educational texts

Burton, S., Hutchings, S., Lundy, C. and Lyons-Lewis, A., 2019. Evaluating the complexity of service-learning practices: lessons from and for complex systems theory. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 23 (3), pp. 89-103. ISSN 1534-6102

Related staff


Core Members

Associated Members

PhD Studentships

We’re offering fully funded PhD studentships aligned with our research centres for UK, EU or International students. Find out more about our PhD studentships